"World civilization" was published by Shandong Pictorial Publishing house.
The river is the natural water surface often or intermittent flow. In English, the river is a natural stream of water, lake or ocean into another river. Chinese vocabulary is rich, call our river, great says river, Sichuan, water, said smaller streams, ditches, bang, music etc.. Water is the carrier of civilization, and civilization creation and development are closely related. Where there is water there is life, there is spiritual, where there is a river with the objective conditions of civilization, such as rivers, West Africa Nile Valley, India, Ganges RIver and India River Valley of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin, China, Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean region, accordingly formed civilization in Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia civilization, civilization and classical European civilization. Factors of the rivers and lakes, water is always with the fate of civilization closely linked. According to ((the Western Han Chuan "records, was the western regions distributed in the area of more than 30 countries, it is" the thirty-six western countries "said. However, since eleventh Century, due to dramatic changes in climate, originally prosperous Western civilization gradually fading. Since about 1600, the ancient Kroraina in the glorious for nearly 500 years after the mysterious demise. When it appeared again in front of the people, turned to the silence in the desert "Pompeii". The main reason for the demise of the migration of ancient Kroraina is the river and Lop Nor. Rivers are usually originated in the plateau or mountains, according to their final destination, can be divided into interior and exterior rivers. Rivers often source Bingfeng setsurei mountain, finally into the inland lake or disappear in the desert. The world's longest river is the Volga River in Russia, Chinese's longest river is the Tarim river. River outflow directly or indirectly into the sea. The world famous river generally belongs to the outflow River, such as Asia, the Yellow River, Yangtze River, Ganges RIver India River, the Euphrates River, Griess River, Mekong river bottom, Africa Nile River, Congo River (Zaire River), the Niger River, the Zambezi River, The Danube, the Rhine, the Yenice River, the Thames River, Seine River, north of the Mississippi River, the St. Lawrence River, the Amazon in South America, Columbia river. It Chinese River, in addition to the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, an important river outflow and flows eastward into the Pacific Huaihe, Haihe, Liaohe, Pearl River, Heilongjiang, to the East and then south into India Ocean from the border of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Irtysh River northward into the Arctic Ocean outflow boundaries. According to the hydrology and river topography, rivers are usually can be divided into three segments of upstream, midstream and downstream. Upstream mountain valley, slope, flow speed; the middle in the gradient and the velocity is reduced at the same time, the river width, increased flow downstream; gentle gradient, the flow velocity of small, large flow. The river and the Heyuan and the estuary, is the end and the end of the river. Heyuan river is the source or origin, each river has its source, the situation is not the same, or ice, or lakes, or spring, or swamp. Estuarine refers to the rivers into the ocean, lakes, reservoirs, rivers (tributaries into the mainstream), desert. In the river, river estuary, often formed a delta to bank or shoal characteristics (alluvial plain). Delta in the world, such as the Nile Delta, the Mississippi River Delta, The Danube Delta, Ganges RIver Delta, Yangtze River Delta, is not only one of the local economic and cultural development, the earliest, the most active area, the historical record is geological changes and the evolution of civilization. The ancient Greeks to the Euphrates and the Griess river the land known as the "Mesopotamia". Here is the world's first agricultural civilization in the area, hence the "cradle of human civilization" reputation. As early as 3000 years BC, Mesopotamia appeared more than a dozen states, entered the early state. In the human history of thousands of years, probably no other place like this big stage, there have been dozens of people on stage, playing different roles. The Sumerians, Akkadians, Guti, Elamites, Amorites, Hittites, the Kassites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, Egyptian, Hebrew, Philip stieng, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Arabs, Turks, British, Americans, or multiply mixed, or intrusion come, or to chase the deer fight, interpretation of the scenes be struck with fright tragicomedy, Western civilization is colorful. Understanding the world until the ancient Africa modern is still quite limited. In general impression, is located in North AfricaCorner of Egypt on behalf of the entire Africa. Indeed, although Africa also Tunisia, Garner, Sultan, Ethiopia and other ancient civilizations, but they left the world's cultural achievements cannot be put on a par with ancient Egypt and. Development of ancient Egypt are leading in the surrounding area, mainly due to its natural conditions be richly endowed by nature -- the nile. Therefore, the ancient Greek historian Ciro Dodd said Egypt is the gift of the Nile "". Especially in the Nile Delta region, the land is fertile, densely populated, as the origin of ancient Egyptian civilization and the ancient Mediterranean. "". This article through the eastern and Northern Africa world-class river watering "the flower" is undoubtedly the glorious and resplendent. In the ancient world, Egypt civilization has been beyond the narrow scope of the Nile basin, both Western civilization of Greece and Rome, or the classical civilization, gets its nourishment. The South Asia subcontinent before modern civilization with the outside world, the development of relative isolation, self-contained. Due to the lack of written records, its early history is linked with myths and legends. The local people believe, Ganges RIver is heaven's channel, resulting in the cult of the Holy river. This reflects the special status of the river, the river in the eyes of the ancients from one side. In the four major ancient civilizations, China recorded history the most short. If not completely confirmed from the Xia Dynasty date, so far only about 4000. However, our ancestors to make full use of the natural water advantage in explore and expand in the process, creating attract people's attention of Chinese civilization. The Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin cradle as part of the Chinese nation's birth, the former development early, a high degree of civilization, has long been a core area of ancient Chinese political, economic and cultural; the latter from the Western Zhou Dynasty king out business began with the former racing together bridle to bridle, becoming the focus of the East Asian civilization. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Yangtze River's strong position to continuously consolidate, become one of the most active economic, cultural Chinese area. The Danube is the most countries in the world through the clear water river, Europa gave birth to civilization, little Yue Han Strauss's "blue The Danube" is more beautiful melody shows its grace. The Rhine is the symbol of romantic Europe, the dream of the water like a flowing in the continental European symphony. The length of the rising in Northwest Russia, many of the Volga River River in Europe is the first river clear. And the passionate, romantic, beautiful The Danube, the Rhine, Thames River (the mother river of the United Kingdom), Volga River was the Russian style, the deep sorrow, and distinctive features, anomaly, it is the rise of Moscow witnessed, and Russia is a symbol of glory. The great geographical discovery makes the history of the development of new and old world civilization unity. With the influx of Western Everfount, whether American rivers "discovery" process, or the development process of modern American civilization, are deeply marked the colonists mark. In this sense, the modern civilization is in North America, western capitalist grafted to the "new world" results. In the development of American civilization in rivers and lakes, supporting role play is objective, but also allow all doubt. For example, as America and Canadian International River, the St. Lawrence River is the outlet channel five Great Lakes, it benefited from the world's largest freshwater body, can maintain the stability of the water. It USA rise in terms of, be no trivial matter. River on its influence. USA except with two largest ocean in the world -- the Pacific and the Atlantic, but also enjoy the Mississippi River water resources, these are the industrial civilization depends on the prosperity of the geographical conditions. Tens of thousands of river in the world, their number is difficult to count the number of. In the numerous rivers, which is one of the longest? Perhaps some people will say that is the Nile in Egypt, but South America into the only recognized the Amazon river. On the "king of the river" argument, is still not known, but to be sure, created by the Amazon River a few in the world -- the most largest flow, tributaries, watershed area most widely, is any other river reach. From the statistics, the total number of tributaries of the Amazon in 1, more than 50000; flow reached 21, 90000 cubic meters / second, 1 / 5 World river flow, than the Nile, Yangtze River, the Mississippi River Three Rivers flow and larger; the river basin area of 691, 50000 square kilometers, with a vast territory of Australia (an area of 7690000 square kilometers) are no more. Not only that, the Amazon rainforest is the world's most abundant biological resources, plays "the unique function of the lungs of the earth". Throughout the history of civilization, the river as the objective environment, a very close relationship with the human society. The different historical period, people's understanding of the river and the handling of their relationship is not the same. Before the industrial society period, the low level of productive forces, science is not developed, many people "live by water". In such a natural environment, the human subject to the economic and social development level, although initially learned for river development and utilization, but on the whole, the river still in awe, attachment and worship rivers, and rivers to maintain a harmonious relationship between the unconscious. In the era of industrial civilization, people have lost their awe for nature, with a strong scientific and technological strength, reckless predatory exploitation of river. Once the harmonious relationship between man and nature is broken, like open a Pandora's box, the ecological crisis River and human disaster will come one after another. With the increasingly global ecological crisis, the whole earth ecosystem unbalanced trend has been difficult to reverse. In 1990, 1995, 2001 and 2007, established by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC) has issued four copies of the assessment report on global warming, according to a large number of facts, describes the human face of the grim future. In accordance with the current rate of global warming, humans from Earth polar ice to melt completely that day has more and more close, when the sea level rise, will lead to floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis and other disasters, natural gas will be released from the ocean, a direct threat to the survival of mankind. Scientists warned that the rapid warming, the Arctic has turned around 8000The earth gradually cooling trend. This shows that, if human beings do not pay attention to governance and to protect the earth's environment, human civilization will be difficult to continue, consequences be unbearable to contemplate! Human beings are the biggest beneficiaries of the earth, it is also the biggest threat. The same knife cut bread and finger. In front of the stark reality of a warming climate, this warning is not alarmist, also is not to entertain imaginary or groundless fears, but save. If you do not respond in a timely manner, do not take effective measures to stop the destruction of the forest, the Amazon rainforest in at least half a century after the may completely disappear from the earth. Satellite images from the latest show, the Amazon rainforest is the acceleration disappeared, and lead to speed up the process of global warming, extreme weather weather sharply, irresistible natural disasters. In order to seek the new, more rational development, and harmonious environment of rivers, has become the inevitable choice of human beings. The book title to rivers, rivers, explore the natural and human civilization, the purpose is to arouse people's awareness and sense of responsibility, the protection of rivers, water resources and the protection of the earth's ecosystem slogans into tangible action, promote ecological civilization era. Jiang Shouming in Nanjing in September 9, 2009 @##@ moonlight den The copyright page: illustration: Mesopotamia ancient culture has gone through several different periods, namely primitive culture, Acard culture, Ba of the Sumerian, Assyrian culture, ethics culture. As early as 4000 BC, the Sumerians as pioneers of civilization, in Mesopotamia built large towns and city, pioneered the irrigation agriculture advanced, building the majesty of the temple, the distinctive feature of the text. 3500 BC, they also centered around the temple, built some of the city as the core, with the surrounding countryside city national symbol, the independent city-state is the early civilization, and is the embodiment of Sumerian culture. 2371 BC, from the north the Akkadians unified the Sumerian city states. Although they don't have cultural what special contribution, but used the cuneiform Sumerian invented, carry forward the glorious Sumerian culture, this point is similar to the Romans in Greek culture. Mesopotamia is a cultural land. Mesopotamia and entered the civilized society, created one of the oldest human character, city and civilization, and with the passage of time, have a profound impact on the surrounding nations and the Mediterranean world. During the thousands of years of history, Babylon, attracted batch after batch of invaders, such as Akkadian, Guti, the Amorites, the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Elamites, Medes, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Arabs, Turks, the British, American and so on. These immigrants once again become the Mesopotamia master, so that the ancient Mesopotamia civilization endured countless ravaged and test. A symbol of war in ancient China, four, change of Dynasty, after a long conquest, Mesopotamia civilization is still in its tenacious vitality was passed down; the ethnically mixed, language, custom intersection, after long years, the rivers will inevitably leave a foreign culture, enrich the connotation of the garden of Eden -- Mesopotamia culture. Civilization: the cuneiform writing is one of the major achievements in culture. Previously in the text, language is the medium of communication between people is. No text, a civilized society is very difficult to record the achievements of the past, and it is difficult to put these achievements to later generations. At first, people with memory will language from generation to generation to inherit. Because the memory easily forgotten or inconsistent with the facts, but also cannot pass the long, thus gradually invented the quipu, Nick chronicle, beaded chronicle method, language or thought to record, on generations, finally produced for the expression of thought hieroglyphs. If the language is the original, leaving no trace of the media, then the text is the tool to record language, thought and information. Writing as a human specific language, writing is regarded as the cradle of civilization, the invention and application of it, is regarded as an important sign to civilization, from the savage state. Hieroglyphic writing system in civilized society is the earliest use of. 3500 BC, the Sumerians in the social practice of productive labor and daily communication, invented a unique pictograph. The original text is cut into triangular pointed reed stalks, wood or bone stick as a writing tool, depicted on clay tablets, looks like a wooden wedge, "hence the name cuneiform". The name comes from the Latin, is composed of cuneus (wedge) and Foma (shape) compound word two words. Reportedly, in 1472, the Italian Pablo in the largest city in southern Iran Shiraz travel, this strange words found in the vicinity of some ancient temple dilapidated walls. In fact, the cuneiform Westerners see first is after the Persians transformation of Iran plateau of Mesopotamia, is very different from the Sumerian writing. The cuneiform script is the precious cultural legacy in mesopotamia. Clerks with simple graphics to cattle, sheep, grain, fish and other closely related to daily life, plant animal pictures, then gradually the graphic symbols fixed, but "no longer depends on each scribe, artistic imagination, so as to ensure the consistency of writing and reading." Cuneiform was originally carved in stone, and later with reed stalks, wood or bone stick characterizations of semi dry in the mud in the clay, writing good fire after drying, made mud version of the book is easy to use and preservation. So far, have unearthed more than ten thousand Sumerian articles, most carved in the clay plate, the famous fairy tale "the epic of Gilgamesh" is to preserve and spread widely.
The river and the evolution of human civilization first chapter bottom Griess River and the Euphrates: the flow of civilization: the Sahara desert in the second chapter the spring of life in the third chapter of India River and the Ganges RIver subcontinent Civilization: founder of the fourth chapter of the Yellow River: sad and depressed feeling Mother River Yangtze River fifth chapter: God made the flow of water horizon sixth chapter: The Danube played the European civilization blue melody: Chapter seventh the Rhine? Ice in continental Europe romance chapter eighth Thames River: a history of the flow in Chapter ninth, Volga River: Russian “ the &rdquo of heaven; the tenth chapter: the St. Lawrence River in North America International River in eleventh chapters: USA Mississippi River waters of “ father ” the twelfth chapter controversy in the Amazon: “ king of the river &rdquo @##@; postscript Water is the carrier of civilization, and civilization creation and development are closely related. Where there is water there is life, where there is a river with the objective conditions of civilization, such as in Mesopotamia West, Africa Nile Valley, Ganges RIver and the India River Basin of India, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River Basin China, Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean region, in the ancient civilization in western Asia, accordingly formed South East Asian civilization, civilization and classical European civilization. Other such as Volga River, the Rhine, The Danube, Thames River, the Mississippi River, the Amazon River, the electricity in their civilization in the occurrence and development play a very important role, witnessed the ups and downs of human history and civilization. Jiang Shouming, Jia Wen prepared by the "world" is the title River civilization with rivers, rivers, and its relationship to nature and human civilization. "World civilization" tell you “ water can carry a boat, it can also capsize ”!
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