Illustration: repeatedly violate the tartar conquest of Mongolia, the German Swedish, had a profound influence on the development of Ross literature. In some of the arts, such as architecture, precious metal jewelry processing, book production, handicraft production, as well as the chronicle compiled the work, because the alien slavery and aggression and destruction, pause backwards, Ross's literature is in the specific historical conditions, still in development. Literature as one of social ideology, is reflected in the human brain of certain social life, expresses the author's thoughts and feelings with vivid artistic image. People against alien to the Ross conquest, slavery, aggression, become the main content of Ross's literature of this period. Widely popular folk heroes song, eulogizes the people's heroes. On the Hibernian, mu luomei CI their song, the hero Ilya wit brave to save Kiev, ravaged the invaders from Mongolia. In some folk songs, revealed Mongolia conquerors cruelty. Angry to sing song, Mongolia invaders to the Ross tax people very fierce, "whoever does not have the money, to his children; who had no children, will be his wife; if anyone not even his wife, to his head". "Warrior song", is the folk song of songs, but it reflects the content is often the real people and events. "Warrior song little accuracy of fact, warrior song strengths and not lies in the accurate tracking of historical facts. The value of their song is the most important, these works are the people's creation, they reflect the people's view of history, reflecting people's essence of historical events and the judgment of their understanding of the ancient Ross junior high school to form social relations, reflect people's ideal." Warrior song in the expression of patriotic feeling at the same time, also expressed a desire of Russian national unity. The history of Russian culture development, produced far-reaching effect. Description of Tatar Mongol invasions war chronicle works include "the battle", "Ji", "Batu intrusion Ryazan collapse", "notes Mikhail Chelny gove skea life" etc.. In these works, the huge disaster depicts the conquerors brought Ross, villages were burned, looted wealth, brothers and sisters were captured, army was scattered and lost a fight, they lay everywhere, shed blood like water. Some authors also discussed the reasons for the disaster. Someone from the Christian theology of the "heaven" to find the answer, think this is the will of god. There are people from the "Bible" to find the answer. "The Bible" had predicted, end of the world before the arrival, there will be a brave people out of the desert, to conquer the earth. Mongolia is one such ethnic tatar. Another view, Ross is the disaster, is sent by God to punish people for Ross, the reason is "because we misconduct", "but also because of the princes in quarrel". In their view, the disasterThe real reason is difficult to princes in Ross's long feud results. In literary works, vividly depicts people's heroic struggle. Like a warrior Evpati Kolovrat to defend their homes, bravery, the enemies to fear, so that he die for one's country, Batu personally ordered his body to Ross. Makuri Smolenskin is a Smolensk teenager brave. When the tartar Mongolia invaders approaching Smolensk, he take death calmly, launched a life and death struggle with the enemy, in danger to save Smolensk. In 1380 September, Ross made 库里科沃 brilliant victory in battle in the wilderness, broke the Mongolia Army invincible myth, greatly inspired Ross's patriotic feelings. All this has vividly reflected in literary works, but also further promote the development of patriotic literature. This masterpiece is "bloody", "don Dmitri Ivanovich the life and death", "the other side" the don, the narrative fiction "later and direct description of the battle of the bloody battle of curry Kewo Mamet legend". Ross warrior works became the symbol of national hero, on their worship and praise, awakened the nation's self consciousness, the sense of national pride in general high, further strengthen the Ross final victory over Mongolia people the confidence. Ross believed, curry Kewo battle victory, is only the first step towards their historic victory. Reflect in Ross and German, Swedish invaders struggle works mainly with "multi Fu Chuan," Alexander "Monte Nevski" etc.. "Multi Fu Monte" description of the Pskov maharajas Dov Monte lead people, against the Teutonic Knights brave deeds. In the latter work, with great reverence introduces Alexander Nevski's life, especially for the 1240 victory over Sweden in the Neva River's heroic deeds. Alexander. Nevski repelled at the critical moment of the national survival aggressors, thus become the adulation, sing for people. The patriotic literature, both valuable literary value, but also has important social significance, it is to accelerate the political union of Ross people, to promote the National Awakening and the Russian nation gradually formed, has played a positive role in. In addition to the patriotism of literary works, Ross's literature is also widely reflects the era of Ross rich and colorful social life, especially the dramatic changes are taking place in the class relations. In the "integrity", "standard", the 伊兹马 Lagonda, are fully exposed feudal lord to robber like to take away by force or trickery, plundered the wealth of the people, and reflect the peasants for feudal oppression increased, living conditions deteriorating situation. Tatar Mongol invasions, in addition to Novgorod not directly affected by the enslaved and make it chronicles compilation and other areas to continue, Ross chronicles, paused for a period of time basically, until the second half of the thirteenth Century is slowly recovering, in Fourteenth Century gradually prospers, and develop. Moscow chronicles, began in the early fourteenth Century. This work was carried out in the church leadership, and has made important achievements in the late fourteenth Century. On 1409, Archbishop Kip Ryan presided over the compilation of large-scale chronicle in Moscow's. This Books are numerous. chronicles in the "past" based on history, continue to included the chronology of Novgorod, Ryazan, Tver area. No matter from space or from the content, it is called the Ross chronicles. Another feature of this chronicle is the income sources, basic remain the same, no processing tamper. Such as including the Novgorod attack on Tver, Grand Duchy of Moscow to condemn Novgorod etc.. Grand Duchy of Moscow in order to strengthen the United Ross regional political needs, 1418 by Archbishop blessed season in Moscow, compiling a new chronicle. The chronicle chronicles of the 基普里安 was greatly revised, such as delete attacks between the Ross content, ease of Moscow with the rest of the contradiction, characterized by Moscow as the center, to achieve full Ross joint inclination. In the chronicles compilation, reflects the Ross political union is an irresistible historical trend, the issue is not the United not united, but how to realize the joint. Tver to Moscow in 1455 to fight, compiled a chronicle. The chronicle describes the world history before thirteenth Century, Ross history, and then describes the history of Tver since thirteenth Century, strongly emphasized to the Principality of Tver is the history of world history and the history of the real Ross, Archduke of Tver Boris Alessandro Vecchi is the true leader of orthodox. Only he is eligible to wear a crown. Obviously, this chronicle should take Tver as the center, instead of the Grand Duchy of Moscow as the center to carry out combined with Ross. In fifteenth Century, Ross with the exchanges and contacts significantly expanded the world. The needs of real life for Ross Ross outside of the country, national history; therefore Ross at this time also appeared in the chronicles of the world, such as Greece and Rome Chronicle "home". The middle of the fifteenth Century published "Ross Yearbook", is a small world chronicle history, including Ross.
In the history of the world, Pei, director of Institute of the Academy of Social Sciences researcher Chinese. Vice president of the China history association. China Academy of Social Sciences world history department, Professor, doctoral tutor. "History and theory", "the history of the world" magazine editor in chief. In 1992 the State Council "to receive special government allowance", 1996 China Academy of Social Sciences, "young and middle-aged expert with outstanding contribution".
The Slavic people is one of the ancient peoples of the world, which belongs to the Europa race East European and Balkan types. They are mainly distributed in central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, there are few in the world. The Slavic people nearly 300000000, divided into East Slavs, West Slavic and southern Slavs three branches. East Slavic comprises Russia, Ukraine and Belarus; West Slavic comprises Poland, Lu day, Czech team and Slovakia; the southern Slavic people including Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia. As early as the late first Century early second Century in ancient Rome literature, already can see the Slavic origin records. At that time, they live in the west of the Oder River, east to the Dnieper River, South to the Carpathian Mountains, vast areas south of the Baltic sea. The Slavic people has a long history and traditional culture, and created become an independent school of Slavic civilization in the historical development. The Slavic civilization has a long history, has made an important contribution to the progress of human civilization, in the development of human civilization history occupies the irreplaceable position. The definition of "civilization", in the academic community is still a lively discussion of the question. Generally, the transformation of the world civilization is the sum total of human material and spiritual achievements, namely the material civilization and spiritual civilization. In English, "civilization" (civilisation) "is the Latin word" Civilis ", its content is more national and social progress. As the development of Slavic civilization development and the whole human civilization, have gone through stages of development from the low to the high. It is rich in content, not only the system civilization of political, economic and social development, but also includes the legal thought, morality, religion, literature and art and civilization, science and technology and education belongs to the social ideology or ideology. So, inevitably, the history of civilization the Slavic will involve political history, economic history, the history of science and technology, art history, education history, social history and cultural history, religion, history and other content. These rich material is the premise of the Slavic civilization, to research on them, helps us to understand and analyze the Slavic civilization as a whole. In the discussion of Slavic "civilization", we are in the use of the concept of "culture", this is the following: culture is based on the understanding of human social lifeOne of the most important fields. If the culture refers to all the capacity of product, material of human material and spiritual production and spiritual, namely the ability to obtain human in historical movement of contradictions and the achievements created by these results, then, as the sum of social progress and human civilization state mark, is the civilization. Culture is the foundation of the development of civilization, no cultural development can not talk about the progress of civilization. In class society culture, no doubt, its ideological content basically depends on the ruling class. Because the social function of culture with distinct social ideology, inevitably to serve the interests of a certain class of. However, the class culture not only is the ruling class culture, in addition, should also include the oppressed class culture, certain components or belong to this type of culture. However, should not be so that the dominant culture is reactionary culture, this simple progress is the folk culture of the conclusion. We are the national culture and the Slavic Slavic civilization research, it is from the understanding of the. In the specific historical environment and cultural background, concrete analysis of concrete problems, in essence helps us to understand scientifically the Slavic civilization. Progress in human civilization is irreversible, the national direction of the civilization is the common. However, this does not exclude all ethnic groups to show their own characteristics in the civilized development road. System of Slavic civilization, is not only a comprehensive understanding of the Slavic civilization itself, but also to understand the world civilization as a whole, because it is undeniable, Slavic civilization is an indispensable part of human civilization. The Slavic civilization through the development of many centuries, the Slavs had established different national historical development process, as well as the people's material and spiritual and cultural life. The Slavic civilization, we strive to under the guidance of historical materialism, grasp the Ezra ethnic lady and the state of diversity and complexity, integrity and development of civilization. The Slavic civilization history, is an integral part of the Slavic nations history. The Slavic civilization, history and development of the Slavic countries have inseparable relationship and the development history, this relationship is not only reflected in the specific process of historical development, but also the performance of some laws in a civilized society culture development history. However, this does not preclude the development of us some regularity in the process of civilization itself, these rules may be part of the history of the general law of development, may also be a special law, the study on these laws, help us to theoretically understand more deeply the Slavic civilization, and then improve the Slavic history research science as a whole. In recent years, some Chinese scholars in the study about Slavic culture, civilization has made some attract people's attention results, however, research in this area as a whole is weak. We are widely absorb the latest research results of domestic and foreign scholars, efforts in combination of theory and practice, history and reality, to explore many aspects of Slavic civilization in the broader social and historical background, trying to comprehensively outlines the history and reality of the Slavic civilization, further research on these problems, and interested in Slavic civilization walks readers benefit from. Due to the limitation of time and level, this book can hardly be avoided shortcomings, hope academic colleagues and readers criticism, so that subsequent amendments.
The first part of East Slavic civilization first East Slavic early state and civilization, ancient East Slavic life two, three Kiev Ross, Kiev Ross religion and culture in the second chapter the Russian unified country, formed a feudal separatism in Kiev Ross and the Golden Horde rule two, Ross against Sweden and the German invasion of the struggle and the relationship with Lithuania three, rise of Moscow, Russia four United State Formation in Chapter third invasion of Mongolia and the Russian unified state during the formation of cultural, architectural art, literature and two chronicles three, music and painting art four, education and scientific sprout fourth chapter of Russian political culture core -- the tsarist autocracy, Ivan IV -- a Russian Tsar Ivan first two, strengthen the centralized rule reform, establish the three special jurisdiction four, tsarist Russia early expansion in the fifth chapter, on behalf of the monarchy to a level of absolute monarchy, the all Russian formation of a unified market two, Russia three, strengthen the establishment of absolute monarchy of the czar "code of 1649" the sixth chapter in mid sixteenth Century to seventeenth Century Russia In culture, education and science and the accumulation of knowledge two, the statesman and the social development of political thought, literature and history books, four, three, seventh chapter of architectural art in eighteenth Century: Russia to European civilization, annals is in out of Russia's Peter Thi two, Peter Thi three, the reform of Russian culture the new stage of the development of literature and art four, five the eighth chapter, the Russian Enlightenment -- the Russian Empire by the land expansion into a war in the north coastal Empire, two, Agamemnon and seven years wars three, the partition of Poland and the Russo Turkish wars chapter ninth of Russian Political Culture Foundation of serfdom, serfdom and the latter half of the eighteenth Century crisis, in nineteenth Century two serfdom half of the industrial production of capitalism development in three, the first half of the nineteenth Century agricultural production in the development of the relationship between capitalism tenth chapter: tsarist Russia Europe a reactionary fortress, Alexander and 斯贝兰斯基 national reform in two, the Great Patriotic War of 1812 two, the czar of Russia and the holy alliance, the eleventh chapter of Russian noble revolutionist Party A: December in December, the party's revolutionary activities in two, "Russian truth" and Ni Muraviev's draft constitution Three, Party December armed uprising of twelfth chapters the first half of the nineteenth Century Russian Revolution democratic thought, the thought of democratic revolution, the two sub Roy Herzen three, Vee G Bellinsky four, Peter 拉舍夫斯基派第 chapter thirteen first half of the nineteenth Century Russian education and science, the new national education system two, Russian progressive education the formation and development of the idea of natural science three, new development of fourteenth chapters the first half of the nineteenth Century Russian literature, Russian literature from the classical to the realism of the evolution of two, Pushkin three, the founder of modern Russian literature for free. The poet Lermontov four, outstanding realistic writer Gogol five, on the eve of the disintegration of the serf system Russian literature in Chapter fifteenth the first half of the nineteenth Century Russian art, drama, music, painting, two three sculpture and architecture chapter sixteenth Russian to capitalism, serfdom was further aggravated the crisis of two, serf system collapse of the three, "farmers" and the implementation of the reform act law seventeenth chapter of Russian capitalism development, administrative and judicial reform, expansion of the two imperial boundaries, three, Russia In the process of industrialization in the eighteenth chapter of capitalism economic policy during the period of Russian social thought, a populist theory and practice two, the Marx doctrine in Russia, the Russian thought spread three in the philosophy of religion in Chapter nineteenth, the second half of the nineteenth Century Russian science and culture, realistic literature two, music and painting three, education and natural science four, the turn of the century Russian literature at the turn of the century five, the art of painting the twentieth chapter Soviet culture, education, literature, painting, two three sculptures and architectural art four, music, drama and film five, science and technology in Chapter twenty-first, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Gorbachev "the new culture thinking" and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in two, the political and economic system reform in the history of heat three, reformers and traditional literature thought of the debate four, painting art new changes and second West Yugoslavia civilization, the first chapter West Slavic early civilization and state, Poland state and the establishment of feudal aristocratic Republic period, the Moravia two the collapse of the Empire of Czech, and the Slovakia national development three, West Slavic early paper The second chapter alien under the rule of the Poland and Poland national culture, the Principality of Warsaw and the kingdom of Poland two, and Krakow revolutionary movement against Austria uprising three, 1863 national uprising of four, foreign reign of science and culture of the third chapter of Poland's Renaissance and the culture of the new development, the growth of the workers movement and socialist ideology the spread of the two, the Second Republic of Poland three, the establishment of the Second Republic of Poland science and culture fourth chapter under Habsburg rule in Czech and Slovakia culture, the Habsburg, the Austro Hungarian Empire under the rule of the Czech and Slovakia two, Czech and Slovakia Education and science two, Czech and Slovakia literature and art in the fifth chapter of Czechoslovakia Republic of China was founded and cultural development in the new stage, Czechoslovakia Republic two, first Republic of cultural development sixth chapter in post-war Poland and Czechoslovakia's social development and cultural choice, the people's Republic of Poland from the establishment to the upheaval in Czechoslovakia: two, from unified to two countries, three independent of post-war Poland and Czechoslovakia the characteristics of the cultural development of the south, the seventh chapter Pull her early civilization and state, southern ancient SlavsThe rise and fall of the country's two spread south, ancient civilization eighth pull's chapter on the southern Slav alien rule and Barok's culture, Turkey and Venice in the Balkans, the Habsburg rule two, Barok three, the Bulgarian culture cultural progress and national new awakening of the ninth chapter for the establishment of national unity and new culture development, Yugoslavia: Kingdom -- the federal people's Republic of China -- the disintegration of two, Bulgaria: independent -- the people's Republic of China in three, -- Yugoslavia's culture and education four, Yugoslavia literary art five, Bulgaria's cultural development and third Slavic religion chapter Slavic belief -- a primitive polytheism, nature worship, ancestor worship two three, the tribe worship and other second chapters of Christianity in the area, establish a Slavic Slavic Christian baptism of Christianity in two, three, Christian Slavs popularization of Slavic culture influence the third chapter Yugoslavia area -- two biggest Christian civilization intersection, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church two, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia orthodox three and, Croatia The Catholic Church in Slovenia chapter fourth East Slavic orthodox development area, the Russian Orthodox Church, patriarch of independent two period of church and state three, the Russian Empire, the Russian Orthodox church state relations of four twentieth Century five, the missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church six today fifth chapter West Slavic area Catholic history, Hussite religious reform movement two, Protestant three, Roman Catholic and cultural influence in West Slavic area four, West Slavic area restoration of modern religious pattern five, today Poland, Czech and Slovakia @##@ Catholic bibliography In the international academic circles "western center theory" and "the clash of Civilizations", Chinese scholars put forward their own theory of civilization, the world civilization is divided into 12 kinds of civilization system. Comparative study of world civilization China Academy of Social Sciences Center organized more than 40 famous scholars, which lasted more than 10 years, the compilation of "world civilization", volume 12. CCTV super large TV series "civilization Road, world civilization global tour" which was designed, and take it as the theoretical foundation. This book is one of the "Slavic civilization (revised Illustrated Edition)". The Slavic civilization out from the narrow the Vistula River Valley, but throughout Eastern Europe. With the Tatar Mongolia, Austro Hungarian Empire, Byzantine forces imprinting, but tenacious blossom flower of civilization. In Peter the Great's charge in the bloody killing, can listen to Chopin, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky read a quality suggestive of poetry or painting, see Moscow Kremlin stalwart towering, Repin's a riot of colours, Mrs. Curie's passion. This book is one of the world civilization. The Slavic people is one of the ancient peoples of the world, are the Europa race in Eastern Europe and the Balkans type type, they have a long history of traditional culture, and created become an independent school of Slavic civilization in the historical development, has made important contribution to the progress of human civilization. This book is Chinese scholars after absorbing the latest research results of scholars at home and abroad, efforts in combination of theory and practice, history and reality, to explore many aspects of Slavic civilization in the broader social and historical background, to outline the process of formation and development of Slavic civilization.
I always think that cultural exchange can promote human development, to promote understanding and friendship between the people and the people all over the world. No cultural exchanges, the human culture development is not like today. "World civilization" show the world civilization is rich and colorful for us, so that we have a more profound understanding and the understanding to the different regional cultures, know how to reference and learning. Ji Xianlin
Culture @ 2017