The Slavic civilization

Date of publication:2001-12   Press: China Social Science Press.   Author:Yu Pei   Pages:573  
Summary

This book is one of the world civilization. The Slavic people is one of the ancient peoples of the world, are the Europa race in Eastern Europe and the Balkans type type, they have a long history of traditional culture, and created become an independent school of Slavic civilization in the historical development, has made important contribution to the progress of human civilization. The Slavic civilization history, is an integral part of the Slavic nations history. The Slavic civilization, history and development of the Slavic countries have a close relationship and the development history, this relationship is not only reflected in the specific process of historical development, but also in culture -- Civilization -- the social and historical development of certain rules. However, this does not preclude the development of us some regularity in the process of civilization itself, these rules may be part of the history of the general law of development, may also be a special law, the study on these laws, help us to theoretically understand more deeply the Slavic civilization, and then improve the Slavic history research science as a whole. This book is Chinese scholars after absorbing the latest research results of scholars at home and abroad, efforts in combination of theory and practice, history and reality, to explore many aspects of Slavic civilization in the broader social and historical background, to outline the process of formation and development of Slavic civilization.
Catalogue of books

Form the third chapter first East Slavic civilization first East Slavic early state and civilization second chapter Russian national reunification of the invasion of Mongolia and the Russian unified state during the formation of culture of the fourth chapter of Russian political culture core -- Chapter fifth imperial autocracy from sand grading representative to absolute monarchy monarchy in the mid seventeenth Century to the sixth chapter, sixteenth Century the seventh chapter: the Russian culture eighteenth Century Russian to European civilization eighth chapter the Russian Empire -- the foundation by the inland country in the ninth chapter the Russian Empire expanded Cheng Shuhai Ross political culture -- the serfdom tenth chapter: Europe tsarist Russia reactionary fortress eleventh chapter Russian Guizhou revolutionary: social impact of Russia's tenth first half of the December half of the party the twelfth chapter first half of the nineteenth Century Russian thought of democratic revolution in Russia in nineteenth Century thirteenth chapter of education and Science in Chapter fourteenth, the first half of the nineteenth Century Russian education and science fifteenth chapter nineteenth Century Russian art chapter sixteenth Russian to capitalism seventeenth chapter development of Russian capitalism eighteenth chapter capitalist period The nine chapter of the second half of the nineteenth Century Russian science and culture in the twentieth chapter, the twenty-first chapter of Soviet culture and the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union Culture Second West, Yugoslavia civilization first chapter West Slavic early civilization and state the second chapter mixed system's Poland and Poland ethnic culture third chapter Poland Renaissance and the new development of culture fourth chapter under Habsburg rule of Czech and Slovakia culture in Chapter fifth, the establishment of the Republic of Czechoslovakia and the cultural development in the new stage of the sixth chapter after the war and Czech Slovakia's social development and cultural choice of the seventh chapter Yugoslavian early civilization and state the eighth chapter alien on the southern Slav rule and Barok culture communication in Chapter ninth, for the establishment of national unity and new cultural development third Slavic religion chapter Slavic polytheism primitive belief -- chapter second Christian in Slavic regions of the establishment of the third chapter of Orthodox Church in Yugoslavia area development the fourth chapter orthodox in East Slavic area history bibliography
Chapter excerpt

Two, strengthen the Tsar Ivan Digest centralized rule reform at the end of fifteenth Century although the form of Russian national unity, however, the reunification of the country's political and economic foundation is very weak. This is because it was not formed a unified national market, the domestic market still very fragile. Ivan IV is crowned Queen of sand, nobility is still rampant in the urban and rural areas; the power of the church expansion, plays a more and more land. Grow with each passing day contradiction between peasants, city civilians and nobles and the church. All of this is a serious threat to the survival of the state of the United russia. In the summer of 1547, in the Moscow broke out against the Glinski family's uprising. In June 25th, a fire broke out in moscow. 25000 houses were burned, 1700 people were killed, more than 8 people become destitute and homeless, homeless. The fire to Moscow residents has brought great disaster, people not have enough for food and clothing, and the prevalence of disease, the town almost paralysis. At this moment, I heard the news from where the Song said, arch-criminal this fire is the grandmother of Anna Gollings C A. The angry crowd rushed into the Moscow Kremlin, they will be the uncle Jo Wa Glinski stoning. Mi Wa Glinski fleeing in panic. Ivan in the guard, fled to Moscow near the city of Vorob 约沃村 (now mount Lenin) escape. In June 29th, people come here, strongly urge the arsonist Anna Glinskaya surrender, also demanded the surrender of Mi Wa Glinski. Ivan assure you will not cover them up, people didn't disappear. The incident made Ivan shocked, he in order to make the event down as soon as possible, Mi Wa Glinski will be fired after the exile, the leader and punishing the uprising. The Moscow uprising calm at the same time, also ended a brief history of the noble Russian ruling period. In the period 1538 Ivan the terrible mother after the death of Yelena. In the power elite, economic depression, the decentralization of power, does not stop the infighting, seriously affected the development of social productive forces, the unprecedented sharp class contradictions. In order to consolidate the tsarist autocracy, strengthening the tsars autocratic rule, Ivan decided to strengthen centralization reform as the main contents of the. In order to carry out the reform, Ivan IV was set up in early 1549 "ministers meeting", also known as the "courtier Duma", this is in fact the Czar government a new core ruling group, whose members would support the reform, and attention by Ivan the terrible person. Ministers willKey members of the imperial attendants on the court, Siri West Aleksei Adashev, the Archbishop of the Andre Kul Buss Ki, Macari etc.. Political commentator I Semyon Peresvetov is small and medium-sized aristocratic political representation, support reform. He lashed out at the big aristocrat, that Russia will become stronger and more prosperous, must contain the "idle rich", namely the noble power, at the same time depends on the emerging small nobility, raise their political, economic status. He also thinks, the management of state can not rely on the great nobles and the feudal lord, and should establish a standing army, build perfect organization of court, and strict tax system etc.. Pi Les Vito J stressed that the tsar to have absolute authority, that the Tsar should "majesty, indulge in arbitrary decisions and peremptory actions, its bright beyond questions", he does not need any advice, listen to great lords when necessary, can take the terror. He also believes that the Tsar autocratic rule, is the first military rule. The army is the mainstay of the Czar government. "The only troops, he can be powerful, in order to obtain the glorious." At the end of 1549 2, in Moscow, the first Russian history red conference, the conference was to political reform and develop new code. The meeting is to solve the princes Czar government affairs of state held level Congress Czar government, is one of the highest governing body. Representatives present at the meeting were nobles, officials and nobles and monks. At the meeting, Ivan IV issued a strongly extremely harsh speech, considered Ivan reform manifesto. He denounced the nobles in his childhood breach of privilege, take away by force or trickery, creating confusion, asking them to make a new start, otherwise will be punished. He also said that the future will protect minority nobles and merchants, so that they will no longer be noble oppression. Ivan solemnly announced to the promulgation of the new national law, political and economic reform. Ivan call participants make concerted efforts, committed to reform. The convening of this meeting, marks the establishment level represents the Russian monarchy. In February 27th, the official told Ivan West Reaves compilation of national codex, which opened a prelude to the reform of ivan. The next day, Ivan IV announced release noble town Jurisdiction Act, in all cases by the court. Law offers protection to the emerging small nobility, make them in politics, economy is no longer the oppressed nobles, and legally enjoy equal status with the big noble. Basic principles as prescribed by this law, become the basis for the formulation of national code. In 1550 June, the completion of the national codification. The code known as "1550", also known as the "czar code code". In 1551 February, in religious and secular feudal lord representatives to attend the meeting, adopted the "code of 1550". This is the first Russian unified legal documents. The code to strengthen the role of the central government, limiting the powers of the governor; judicial power and administrative power is concentrated in the central, the abolition of the princely dominion of the judicial privilege. "Code of 1550", reiterated the "provisions" code of 1497, farmers only in Liye, especially section has the right to leave him, and increased left to pay "living expenses" amount of debt bondage, extension, owners ransom have more specific requirements. Compared with the end of the fifteenth Century, the Russian Serfdom had the further development. In order to foster small nobility, Ivan IV in the years l550 October ordered the land quality, Moscow and adjacent, 1078 small aristocracy with no land in near Moscow, namely the reward "dry outstanding people", so that these people not only in economy, but also in political position has been improved significantly. The new code was changed to the local management system. Local authority and elected governor, Czarist government, responsible directly to the central government. They maintain small aristocratic interests, fundamentally limits large aristocratic interests. In 1556, officially announced the scrapping of Shi Yi, further ensuring the local authorities into the centralized system. Ivan's reform is extensive. In addition to the formulation of national law, the central government, taxation, military, religion and other aspects of reform. The reform of central government, mainly through the establishment of the new hall, set up to replace Ivan II of those complex, repeating mechanism. These new hall mainly military hall, responsible for directing operations; manor hall, responsible for handling foreign hall estate. Responsible for the implementation of national foreign policy; fiscal department, responsible for the state finance, but with the Treasury separation. Then according to the needs, set up security, criminal and accepting hall. Russia from Ivan IV, to continuously strengthen the serfdom exploitation at the same time, it began to external expansion, the annexation of neighbouring territories. In the newly occupied territory, is established as the central government representative office hall, political, economic, military rule to the local residents. In order to weaken the great nobles, Ivan IV promote small nobility as the new leader of hall. Such as foreign hall leader Weiss Cova Te was assistant division of the book, the origin of civilians, but because the talented Ivan, deeply appreciated, as chief representative of Russian and foreign negotiations. Reform of the tax system, strengthen the goal is the same from centralized rule of. First of all, the abolition of the old church and monastery never tax privileges, increase the government revenue; at the same time to measure and the registration of the land, in the whole Russia gradually unified weights, develop new revenue standards. As the Czar government rule base and noble, special care Tsar government, they occupied land, but less taxes; and the majority of farmers land occupation, but tax. In order to open up the financial resources, the government retained the original tax, tax at the same time, and the introduction of new taxes to pay for government, increasing fiscal expenditure. One of the important contents of the reform is the reform of military ivan. In order to improve the status and role of small nobility in the army, Ivan IV first in war no longer apply the caste system, the senior generals replaced those born in the noble army, but the corrupt and incompetent. The core content of military reform is the military service act of 1556. Military service law the nobility and the small aristocratic service under the uniform standard. Military service law, whether small or great nobles,Noble, where there are 150 Russia mu land, must be a heavily armed cavalry, more than the amount of land, with armed servants. Territory more, should be out of the troops are also more. Nobles must personally led the armed battle, where no participants, will be flogging, until the stripped of its territory. Small nobility as provided more than the required number of troops, can get cash compensation, if not up to standard, also will be punished. In 1550, Ivan IV will Ivan III established Musketeer change consists of 3000 people shot army, this is Russian history first standing infantry. The army dress uniform, no longer use machetes, spears, bows and arrows, cold weapon, and received a musket guns armed with new. The main task is to defend the fire army Moscow city as the center of the security crackdown, people of the Tsarist regime in any form. Compared with the state of emergency convened vigilantes, fighting capacity increased. Stationed in the border area of Cossacks are standing army, the aggression war launched when incorporated into the field army. Military reform has greatly strengthened the power of the Russian army. Ivan governance army, in addition to infantry and cavalry, also established the first Russian supporting artillery. Artillery now has become an independent branch. Ivan III was founded in 1487 in Moscow for gun factory I article has had great development.......
Media attention and comments

Review your letter since nearly one period, research on "civilization" problem has attracted more and more attention in academic circles. Especially after the cold war, the world situation has changed sharply and the international situation, the group of two military confrontation ended, although the world is still not peace, but peace and development have become the theme of world development. At the same time, although the trend of economic globalization is accelerating, world politics is increasingly towards multi polarization direction, the diversified development of social culture has rich and colorful situation. It is in this context, many countries scholars begin to pay more attention to study the culture strategy, they think of civilization and culture will play a more and more important role in the development process of the world in twenty-first Century. Since China's reform and opening up, the academic circles also several degrees off "culture fever", especially in the humanities scholars from different perspectives in the discussion about the cultural problems. This shows the cultural problems and the development status and significance of strategy in the new period of our country, has been recognized and paid attention to. However, in general, we still lack the overall study of civilization and cultural issues, not to change the research and the pattern of the world and the international situation together, also lack of in-depth analysis of the relevant foreign research status and development trend of civilization. Generally speaking, we to the world civilization problem research is still relatively weak, so far we haven't Chinese himself systematically, comprehensively discussed the occurrence and development of the world civilization works. We think, to strengthen the research in this field, rules and features of Marx's point of view to explore the development of world civilization, and absorbing all the positive achievements of world civilization in carrying forward the fine traditions of the Chinese civilization at the same time, a set of can actively promote the Chinese civilization, development strategy and can effectively cope with foreign civilization the challenge, has become an urgent task. Therefore, China Academy of Social Sciences specially set up "research group of" world civilization, organization of inside and outside hospital experts and scholars to study the subject, published the multi volume book is the result of hard work over the past few years. Need to explain here, the connotation of the used in the book "civilization" concept. "Civilization" (Civilization) comes from the Latin word civis, but civis is not only refers to the Rome citizenship, but also contains more than at the time of original state of life of foreigners or the superior mean, so people use the word "culture" to refer to and the primitive society, namely "savage" phase region of other higher the stage of human history. But the term until eighteenth Century was used in the European official documents until twentieth Century, is widely used in various fields of the humanities, but it is not only used to refer to the development stage of history, have also been used for a certain range of spatial, which is used to indicate that the "regional civilization". It should be pointed out, people of "civilization" and "culture" as the explanation is not the same as all, there are many kinds of definition, until no consensus. The main purpose of our research subject is not a definition of what is more appropriate, but in the specific study of world civilization itself. In this book we basically adopt the international view, namely "civilization" as the broad sense of the "culture", more specifically, refers to occupy a certain space (or regional) social historical combination of material and spiritual civilization, including two aspects, namely people the total objective method of activities and achievements. We think, the world civilization must adhere to the Marx materialism. Civilization in the world all is the product of activity in the specific historical conditions of various specific groups, part of its own and development process of evolution, has its own characteristics and advantages and disadvantages, and plays different roles in history in different historical periods. All the achievements of civilization in history is a valuable contribution to the whole of human civilization, should be fully recognized and respected. No one can claim to be inherently superior civilization, regard oneself head and shoulders above others, ego based (such as the so-called "view of western center theory"), always in its own cultural values and standards to measure other civilization, even interference, which is obviously the cultural hegemony, but also impossible to achieve illusion.......
Editor recommends

In recent years, research on the problem of "civilization" has attracted more and more attention in academic circles. Especially after the cold war, the world situation has changed sharply and the international situation, the group of two military confrontation ended, although the world is still not peace, but peace and development have become the theme of world development. At the same time, although the trend of economic globalization is accelerating, world politics is increasingly towards multi polarization direction, the diversified development of social culture has rich and colorful situation. It is in this context, many countries scholars.Begin to pay more attention to study the culture strategy, they think of civilization and culture will play a more and more important role in the development process of the world in twenty-first Century. Since China's reform and opening up, the academic circles also several degrees off "culture fever", especially in the humanities scholars from different perspectives in the discussion about the cultural problems. This shows the cultural problems and the development status and significance of strategy in the new period of our country, has been recognized and paid attention to. However, in general, we still lack the overall study of civilization and cultural issues, not to change the research and the pattern of the world and the international situation together, also lack of in-depth analysis of the relevant foreign research status and development trend of civilization. Generally speaking, we to the world civilization problem research is still relatively weak, so far we haven't Chinese himself systematically, comprehensively discussed the occurrence and development of the world civilization works. We think, to strengthen the research in this field, rules and features of Marx's point of view to explore the development of world civilization, and absorbing all the positive achievements of world civilization in carrying forward the fine traditions of the Chinese civilization at the same time, a set of can actively promote the Chinese civilization, development strategy and can effectively cope with foreign civilization the challenge, has become an urgent task. Therefore, China Academy of Social Sciences specially set up "research group of" world civilization, organization of inside and outside hospital experts and scholars to study the subject, published the multi volume book is the result of hard work over the past few years. Need to explain here, "world civilization system: the connotation of the use of Slavic civilization" in the concept of "civilization". "Civilization" (Civilization) comes from the Latin word civis, but civis is not only refers to the Rome citizenship, but also contains more than at the time of original state of life of foreigners or the superior mean, so people use the word "culture" to refer to and the primitive society, namely "savage" phase region of other higher the stage of human history. But the term until eighteenth Century was used in the European official documents until twentieth Century, is widely used in various fields of the humanities, but it is not only used to refer to the development stage of history, have also been used for a certain range of spatial, which is used to indicate that the "regional civilization". It should be pointed out, people of "civilization" and "culture" as the explanation is not the same as all, there are many kinds of definition, until no consensus. The main purpose of our research subject is not a definition of what is more appropriate, but in the specific study of world civilization itself. In the "world civilization system: Slavic civilization" we basically adopt the international view, namely "civilization" as the broad sense of the "culture", more specifically, refers to occupy a certain space (or regional) social historical combination, including the spiritual civilization and material civilization two aspects, namely people are total objective method of activities and achievements. We think, the world civilization must adhere to the Marx materialism. Civilization in the world all is the product of activity in the specific historical conditions of various specific groups, part of its own and development process of evolution, has its own characteristics and advantages and disadvantages, and plays different roles in history in different historical periods. All the achievements of civilization in history is a valuable contribution to the whole of human civilization, should be fully recognized and respected. No one can claim to be inherently superior civilization, regard oneself head and shoulders above others, ego based (such as the so-called "view of western center theory"), always in its own cultural values and standards to measure other civilization, even interference, which is obviously the cultural hegemony, but also impossible to achieve illusion.
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