"The European modern life" (three volumes) from the perspective of cultural overview of 16-18 century European daily life. "Home" and described the life of urban and rural residents living in the range: the birth and childhood, love and marriage, old age and death. "Village in city" and the village and city life world image, vivid description of the farmers and merchants, artisans and their guild, ceremony, customs, public life and the power of the state. The process of "religion, witchcraft, enlightenment" religious reformation studies this great religious movements, witchcraft, superstition and the enlightenment in the eighteenth Century the great spiritual transformation. To explore how the religious reformation and enlightenment movement influence people's life.
Schade Dulmen is a professor of University of Lund modern history of Germany sal.
Chapter 1 introduction of household and family first festival second festival households housekeeping and family size third patriarchal household fourth residential, food and clothing for children and young people the first section of second chapter of birth and death second children education section second youth third chapter of marriage and marriage: first section engagement and wedding second festival as a social mechanism the third section of the fourth chapter of marriage life, old age and death in elderly patients with first quarter second quarter was expected to pension and the cause of death of third day death and burial of the fifth chapter of civil family: utopia or reality inspection conclusion annotated bibliography illustration source name index gazetteer content index
The creation of "modern" conditions Digest deeply affect the staff and the pastor's wife, decided in their world is organization of social administrative system unceasing enhancement. Because of work and family life are separated, enhanced the family relationships, which also gives their life is recorded. Staff of the wife of the environment and other women's labor conditions are quite different. In the early modern society, not a home can like here, men and Women's World is separated, occupation and family life are separated because of the man's workplace was transferred out. This means that, women not only in the form of occupation -- although some places still placed in the home -- left the man in the working world, and his work is not understood; on the other hand, from the narrow point of view, women were completely circle at home, it is necessary to create a the world here. In the occupation life after her husband can relax in this world, children can also accept family hope they grow by the need of education here. As long as this separation also the men and women of the world to man "sex" and advantages, tenants of the structure of patriarchal will still increase, but also to promote family emotion, strengthening women's ethics. Before the industrial home for the first time provide a model for women women equality in society, and it is not a kind of life, although the staff and the priest family haven't changed economic affiliation, but for the ethical spirit of the liberation of prerequisite favorable. The minister's wife have played a very special role, they not only to raise a family, but also as a housewife is a model of the set, especially to help her husband to fulfill their social responsibilities. Certainly not a woman to pursue not by her husband affect the interests of the. Be of no great importance in the role of a wife "the" household is undoubtedly, she belongs to the head of the household, her duty is not limited in the scope of the cheap labor force, she is responsible for the domestic order, children, especially to produce a male heir. Only the economic point of view is too simple. People often mentioned, farmers think that their cattle are more valuable than their wives, "cattle died was a big disaster, death is not the bad woman". This is only half the truth, in the folk is also popular with such a sentence: "no woman home as there is no fire stove." That there is a positive evaluation. In the early modern times, there definitely is a lot about introduction of women's labor of evaluation. The men on their own evaluation activities are always very high, but the value of housework and meaning is still on the women's issues. In 1745, the Bavarian priest Yordan von Waseburg wrote: "the farm labor is man, woman should earnestly to do the housework at home. This work is also essential, no one dare to say, women should ignore it, or give it up. No one says, this is just meaningless things, is wasting time on unnecessary. Of course this is! If no woman weaving, sewing, cleaning, washing, cooking, baking and so on, what, a man dressed in what to eat? "Luther said:" the woman is a friendly, lovely, short life partner. Women have children, raising them, housekeeping, finishing the man brought back...... Therefore, they are called divine soul family, they are the honour of the family, jewelry and ornaments. After eighteenth Century, the educated people get social status is determined at birth and social class no longer, but on his achievements. He may seek outside the family occupation, occupation and family were strictly separate. The educated and wealthy residents, with emphasis on the education of the children also had the very big change, the principles of education is no longer involved in the whole household labor, but consciously let boys and girls receive family and school education. That is to say, the children at least to help my mother with the housework, of course, is mainly refers to girls, boys are out of work in the. This is fully consistent with the public family education ideal. At the end of eighteenth Century, Graff said: "the public family education sons to daughters is different from the education purpose, to the former request is to be industrious and profitable, for the latter request is the ability to housekeeping ability and household management." Because the separated from the adult world and the children of the world are rigidly, between residents and street also therefore draw clear boundaries, so as to implement the education. Associating with other children have parents have the control and supervision of consciousness, people tried to prevent the children accept the harmful effects. In this way, the formation of a children.Some of the world. Here, the labor and the game is not carried out at the same time, but for adults with learning and the game of life. Parents are personally education, citizen children initially are learning to read and write to their parents, parents should be devoted a lot of patience, invested a lot of time. It can be speculated, may not have child labor in class, because it will hinder the moral education. For the future life to prepare pure education through schools, reading and learning -- an important role plays, not through participation in work, or to help parents work. They thus lost and connection to the world around, the familiar "abstract" areas of life. This is the formation of the citizens of the state is a very important prerequisite. How much influence are hard to assess the school education for children produced there, very much. Since after the reformation, the education system is the first in the city gradually popularized, and the public, the church and the state are also be promoted, but the difference in different social strata in considerable. No mandatory requirement for rural residents to send their children to school, they can't get away, but also do not understand the need to read and write. Of course, before also has been able to read and write the farmer, by eighteenth Century, more people have this ability. The rapidly go up in the world in the society who are from father to learn the basic knowledge, father consciously take the children to school. The artisan interest also gradually increase, they are read, write, calculate some basic education, but also for religious reasons to send their children to school, this situation is not only appear in the pietistic social fields. Knowledge and ability is not to help improve social status, but has the skills in. For a long time, not all of the nobles can read and write, but most noble children are educated, usually not in educational institutions, public, but in my house has a teach gentleman, only those civil society upper to keep their children in school to receive normal education, this is a a part of family education. Family education or hire tutor or responsible for the Father himself, sometimes is the mother to give their children the first lesson. In such a home has books, these books are not meaningless, they attract children to read, caused non religious interest. In the handicraft industry in the world is the opposite, most of them are only some of the religious books. This is Gerd and his sister to accept education, but also far more than the general level of that era. They never went to primary school, Gerd's father gave him the rich content of education, he directly into the University learning. Only those who can not afford a home teacher, father and no time for education of the family, to get their children off to school. After the end of eighteenth Century, outside the family education has become a common obligation. Until eighteenth Century, there is no unified education system, although the city, church and state are established schools in management and support, but only in the education development, on the basis of the educated subject interest increases gradually, formed a system of education system. Here mainly refers to the so-called primary education system, high school and university is already exist, but there is no clear teaching plan, there is no fixed textbook or certain mechanism. In the primary school has a class system, but most of them were not according to age or gender division. The girl is only primary school, not in high school, but also the lack of educated teachers: the end of the eighteenth Century, the school teacher as a "grade". School of management is often as a sideline, by the handicraftsman or pastor, or their wives do: usually run schools in their home. Whether Protestant pastor, or the Catholic Church soil, once found the gifted children, have urged their parents send them to the community or church school. In many areas, by the end of the eighteenth Century there has been a real school life -- but according to those plans often will give other people the impression, Prussia's mother Kroden so vividly describe wrote: "because I can't write, so was sent to preparatory school, by a 70 year old woman discipline. She lives in the Catholic Church in a shabby little house, there was only one room and corridor. The room with brick, near the place has an opaque windows, can't see out. In the fireplace next to a brick stove, the old lady sitting on the stove in front to weave all day. With a wooden spoon and a whip on a small stool next to it, this is the only I can remember the teaching aid. The students, also is the three benches boys and girls sit in in order to put on the bench, with no arms, is red, has worn out. Sitting in the front bench read the letter, read Pinyin sat second benches, sat in third benches reading. The children is such a makeshift learned to read. From the beginning of course always sing a song of fixed song, because singing repeatedly to remember the words and music, there is a brief prayer, is fixed. A child to recite the humming out, and then one by one down, all the way to the weave old woman there. She picked out the Hahn from the primary textbooks (cock) this word, let them to recite the alphabet, or 'a, B, ab' to recite. The old woman said little, if a child was wrong, she put the wool group removed, with one hand pulls the child in his arms, with the other hand tops off, grab a spoon or a spanking, until he finally. Another child is not moving forward, they are quiet idly sitting there to kill time, class is the beginning and the end of the." The report did not reflect the relationship between the primary school, also did not show the presence of uniform rules, it is not influenced by the secular government and is not subject to the supervision of the church. Rural school rudimentary, have donated or council funded city school, their quality is mainly secular government and church involvement, relying on the school funds is unable to maintain a school. Needless to say, the religious factor here was very important forUse, but emotional go through marriage to put them all together, can not be attributed to a class of "romantic" meaning absolute passion. This four marriage relates to are those of higher social status, can show the case to the people, from them and had to see the two kinds of common tendency: one, can be determined, the emotional feeling in unceasing enhancement, thus gradually became the talk of the sexual relationship the topic. Pietism and German education movement to open up a variety of ways for the. Luther and Paul M Gaertner, between them and the wife are almost never talked about their relationship -- "their feelings" but in their speech, in the sharing of routine way played most incisive, and Frank and Klopp Skei and their wives had in describing cares about each other's feelings. The two couple outside the conventional found each other. Secondly, the relationship became increasingly secular, Klopstock couples the most evident. Put them together is not compulsory, not a Christian mission, but common feelings, feelings of happiness, but Luther, Baumgartner and Frank still put their marriage, is their relationship with the Christian together.......
Chinese version very happy this book I wrote was translated into Chinese, this shows not only, in the globalization of world various culture more and more frequently collide with each other, but also to meet the Europe and China want close to each other's desire. This history book in front of the description is "early modern culture and everyday life", which relates to the field of German history is the opening of the new culture. From twentieth Century since the late 80's, cultural history, more and more attention to daily life and anthropology. Although the cultural history is written for the public, that is not a general sense of professional textbooks, but it also reflects the current status of the study, we can understand by it, can also know the cultural history research and teaching 20 years. Here is the description and analysis of Germany, more precisely in the early modern times "old empire" period of cultural and daily life, can put a few books as a model of European culture and life history: German history in its own unique way of representing the problem of development of Europe, it promotes the the development of different religious denominations lifestyle, leads to a different kind of political system, to promote the development of the legal system of the long lasting. Using the cultural history of the structural analysis method is, according to the three plays an important role in the modern history of the system to study separately. The first volume of domestic cultural category of social and emotional sense of family -- tenants from birth to death; the second volume is concerned with grade life world, most people live in a hierarchical world is how to form in the early modern village and city society, third volumes in the religion and magic as a subject, at the same time discusses the knowledge and enlightenment, discussed the reformation to the Enlightenment of the cultural history of the overall development process. In the early modern times has determined the development direction of modern, and this development is open, so the development of imagination is limited. A major problem is the contradictory psychology of modern society, namely the early industrial era of traditional and modern relationship. I was to write in German history from a European perspective, when the world culture is increasingly close, more and more mutual understanding, hope that in the near future, there will be a prospect of reconciliation as the center of the arrival of the world history. Sincerely thank the press and the translator, hope Chinese readers have a useful reading. Richard Dulmen 2003 August
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