Illustration: in 1778 February, Franz Anton Mesmer came to Paris, announced that he found a tiny liquid, in all animal bodies through, around. Mesmer had not seen what he said liquid, but he thinks, the liquid should be present as a gravitational medium, because the planet can't attract each other in vacuum. Mesmer said that the original "force of nature" full of the entire universe, and he can be brought to the earth, so as to provide heat, light, electricity, magnetism for the people of Paris. He also trumpeted the liquid in the treatment of disease effect. He thinks, to a magnet body like, people are sick, because the flow of the liquid in the human body by the "block". People can "Messmer operation" to control and enhance the flow of liquid, is through the massage body "pole", overcoming obstacles, to achieve a "crisis" (crisis) -- this is often expressed as a spasm, eventually restore health, also is the restoration of harmony "between human and nature". Mesmer with the eighteenth Century cult natural fashion, but to his point of view more powerful, he can take what he said liquid into practice. He let the patient into the epileptic like spasticity, or like sleepwalkers as be in a trance, can cure various diseases they, burnout syndrome from blindness to splenomegaly caused by. Mesmer and his followers to show very attractive: they let the patient knees together, placed between the knees of their own, with his finger to touch the patient body, searching for small poles of a magnet body -- the complete large magnet, is constituted by these small magnets. Mesmer requires skill, because of the small magnets always constantly changing position. The establishment of "contact with the patient" (rapport) is the best way to rely on the stability of the magnets, such as finger and nose on the magnet (Mesmer banned the patient snuff, is worried about the magnetic balance will destroy the nose); at the same time to avoid some areas, such as in the head of the north pole, which is used to receive Mesmer liquid from the stars the soles of the feet, and is located in the south pole, it can naturally to the earth's magnetic. Most of the hypnotist focus on human body central, namely the hypochondriac region (hypochondria), also is the abdomen on both sides of the region, Mesmer think this is the perception of the centralThe location of the.
Robert Darnton (born 1939), American Princeton University history professor Shelby Kurom Davis, is one of the most important French history experts in the English speaking world, is also a cultural history, history of reading leader. "Hypnosis" and the end of the French Enlightenment is his first book. Representative works: "Rameau's kiss, the cultural history of thinking", "the Great Cat Massacre, the French cultural history research", "the French Revolution banned best-selling book", "the old system in the period of underground literature", "enlightenment.".
Remember at the beginning of the 1990's, I studied for his PhD at Stanford University America. It is after the modern academic swept the western humanities and social science fields, power, construction, representation, identity, identity, gender, race, queer (queer) noun in the writings and speeches of senior scholars exist everywhere. Graduate students are excited, There were many discussions., said that this round of postmodernism ferocious, but I do not know will not like the waves of the academic fashion, is fleeting. A British to the outstanding student at lightly said a sentence: "after the storm, the sea, the sea is also is original?" His meaning is clear, but it is a little hard to. After the storm, the sea, calm, not is the sea? However, think carefully, also may have not. Who knows? Because to understand, so I left a memory. No matter the analogy is appropriate, of course, we see after the storm the baptism of the modern western academic circles the sea is "changing the world". The dominance of the truth, objectivity, regularity, economic base, superstructure and analysis category becomes the object of criticism are revisited, power and construction of new concepts such as he entered academia, a comprehensive update of the theoretical premise, research path, method, target and function, leads to the scientific paradigm of Thomas Kuhn's. The revolution in western academic circles, post modern period. After the modern movement in twentieth Century sixty or seventy's first became. A series of works in French thinker, historian Michel Volker created the culture research model. His masterpiece "birth of the clinic" (1963), "madness and civilization" (1965), "discipline and punish" (1975), "history" (1976), the rational Kingdom since the age of Enlightenment on eighteenth Century launched criticism subversive, and reveals the reason how to prostrate oneself in worship the individuality and the difference of hostility, rational and how to use the powerful techniques to control, suppression and attempt to eliminate the differences and different, in order to establish the modern social order.
The first chapter and the second chapter hypnosis hypnosis popular science movement in third chapter hypnosis radical character of fourth chapters as a radical political theory of hypnosis fifth chapter from Mesmer to Hugo the sixth chapter conclusion literature illustrated appendix Mesmer advocated Paris amateur scientist environment generally harmonious society, harmonious society Baerga J hypnosis articles and textbooks a French paragraph index translation postscript @##@ translation anti hypnosis view in the text This book deals with a since the end of the eighteenth Century by historians as a subject is not worth to pay close attention to history -- hypnosis. The author tries to illustrate the state of mind and the mentality of intellectuals in France during the French Revolution, that is to say, when the French exploration is how to see the world. The French Revolution intellectuals found, hypnosis can be used as a way to explain natural phenomena; and completely absorbed the essence of hypnosis, as a cultural heritage to their next generation, the hypnosis worshiped as a social movement. In popular science in this strange fashion -- hypnosis -- as some really spread widely in pre revolutionary France and took a radical political views of the world an example.
Professor Robert Darnton is a famous America cultural historian, was born in New York in 1939, 1960 graduated from Harvard, he received a PhD from University of Oxford in 1964, 1968 in Princeton and Harvard, served as the president of the USA historical society, Harvard Library director. He began to publish the history of France in eighteenth Century from twentieth Century 60 years, since twentieth Century eighty or ninety's writings, especially. Darnton is one of the most important French scholars of the history of English, but its history method and Cobb political and social historian, but also different from the Gaye thought historian. The child is father of the man, he is a bottom-up, starting point novel and chic, with a large number of historical data as the basis, draw the outline of the late eighteenth Century concept change and collective mentality, forming a unique style of history, which has great influence. Twentieth Century at the end of 60, the Swiss city of Neuchatel before and after the Darnton found in possession of tens of thousands of letters of revolution of letters. After decades in these valuable historical data as the basis, has written several books, become the history of books and reading history come first on the list of experts. "Hypnosis" and the end of the French Enlightenment is Professor Darnton the first French history, has always been to this scientific fashion neglected historian hypnosis as the breakthrough point, through a large number of letters, manuscripts, books, newspapers and other historical materials, in pursuit of hypnosis movement in the French Revolution changes before and after the end of life, to explore the association between hypnosis and radical ideas, political movement, people's mentality, the enlightenment, and provides a new perspective to reveal the causes of the outbreak of the French Revolution, the field is still the important works in the history of france.
"Hypnosis" and the end of the French Enlightenment: in 1778 February, Mesmer announced that he found a tiny liquid, in all animal bodies through, around,...... People are sick, because the fluid flow in the body, by the "block", people can through the "Mesmer" to control and strengthening, the liquid flow, eventually restoring health.
Culture @ 2017