Take the world culture

Date of publication:2012-1   Press: Changchun   Author:(United States) Peter Standish / Stephen M. Baer | translator: Stone 小竹 / / Gao Jing   Pages:300  
Preface

In the eyes of many foreigners, Mexico is an exotic exotic land. There is a beautiful coastline, Latin Rhythm, lively, romantic hero Pancho Vera and full of revolutionary spirit of folk songs and mustachioed man, broad brimmed hat, corn Griddle CakeSteamed pork with rice flour, corn...... Where is the Indian people and places to live. Today, surrounded by the ruins of an ancient civilization in the quiet soaring tropical rain forest, or is covered under the tall volcano smoky shadow. We can go there looking for adventure, escape, and then returned safely to his familiar world. At least, we see in the travel trailer is a Mexico. But these propaganda to convince us that is a use of selective exaggerated image constructed, distorted reality myth. Purpose of the book is to explore the question about Mexico, these images, through them to see a real Mexico. Mexico the name comes from the Indian clan name, known as the Aztec indians. They used to be in the Mexico city as the center of the rulers of the central plateau. At the beginning of the sixteenth Century, the Spanish conquest of the land, the vast area of this place and the surrounding was officially named as the "new spain". However, after more than 300 years of colonial rule, the name "Mexico" is still in real life always use. After independence, Mexico became the official name of the country. At present, Mexico has a population of about 90000000, is a vast, complex, full of vitality and personality of the country. Increasingly frequent exchanges between it and its northern neighbor America, Mexico has made influence pervades everyday americans. People may think, Mexico and American adjacent to the geographical location, as well as its unique status in the American mind, may bring some benefits to it. For example, get more attention and material assistance than other Latin American countries, but in fact, this position also gives Mexico artificial into great pain. For example. In 1846. In 1847 the two countries in the war, Mexico was forced to cede USA nearly half of the land, including the now American California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, Arizona and new mexico. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been introduced, many people have agreed with Mexico and Canada, American belong to North America in the. This Agreement may be in more internationally respected Mexico. Let people more deeply aware of its unique status in the Latin American countries and between Mexico and American cultural association. Of course, Americans now have to admit that it is very natural, Latin tide is sweeping across the country they continued influx of immigrants, in Latin America, Latin American food, music, movie stars in the America all popular. According to estimates, to 2025, America will become the world's most populous country speak spanish. Even so, some potential outbreak of conflict. Although we are the hope of the world in the future can be more mutual respect and mutual understanding, but today many Americans, hidden in the minds of chauvinism idea, no less than the 1492 Spanish Empire complex. We are in the world, more and more countries and regions different to each other, depend on each other. Look from the surface tends to homogenization, therefore, we also need to strengthen the understanding of other cultures, and reach the premise that understanding, is out of the NIMBY pure bystander Mentality -- although this idea is steadfast, but apparently naive. We need to simply examine your own mind about culture, ", and" Mexico "concept, and then from the view of history culture of Mexico. We're in stereotypes and political vocabulary in the description of the "unity" of Mexico culture, Mexico culture to restore the truth -- dynamic process multiple an overflowing vitality. Culture itself is a complex concept, and the culture of Mexico is a resplendent with variegated coloration, controversial field. Culture is a kind of strength, is also a cause of dispersion forces. People find their own identity in the national culture characteristic, find the nation different from other people. Culture covers the way we live our daily lives, but also cover the "we are the philosophical question what people". On the one hand, culture is the day we live in them, and is usually a environment unconsciously under its influence, on the other hand, we also through various forms of art activities and symbolic move consciously constructed their own culture. In the study of Mexico culture, mainly focused on traditional anthropology first level of culture, that is to say, the people's daily physical activity, especially the non European nations or "indigenous" people daily life; cultural research nowadays, has increasingly focused on understanding the culture second level, namely, observe it as a conscious construction, expression through various (is not only elegant art, including pop art) embodied after speciation. This is not to deny the significance of Anthropology of material culture, of course, does not mean that the material from this reality. The two ways of looking at culture although it seems be totally different, but essentially closely related: all the cultures are human shaped, and non language is not a prior to human life, can express the preset reality. In principle, all the groups and individuals are equal to their own culture. All countries through its class differences, gender differences, language and ethnic characteristics in the two aspects of inner and outer established itself from other national identity. However, no national culture exist in a vacuum. People in the study of a culture, usually don't take the method of isolated, abstract, but to a certain historical environment as a reference, and to compare with the other culture. A typical example is, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Latin American Indians never feel like the Indians, also don't know what is special about the way of life. The word "Indians" Europeans invented (although the Indians soon accepted this name, and use it to fight for their own cultural and practical significance of the right to life). Today, the relationship between Mexico and American also with this quite similar, both with each other as a frame of reference to define their own. Imagine that year. When the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes led his team to overcome a thousandMillion insurance, over two volcano in Central Valley edge, first look to the magnificent Aziz Turk capital, Chiti Tran, the whole world -- precisely the Europeans and Indians in the eyes of the world, in this a moment forever changed. From a cultural perspective, they find each other, and then, they could only with its limited view of the world to second guess the other meaning of existence. The Indians to Cortes as the myths and legends of white 肤长 bearded quetzalcoatl. In the Spanish eyes, Indians (not exact thrown to the name "Indian") may be the legend of the lost continent of Atlantis, or Greek mythology about the Amazon, the Spaniards regarded themselves as medieval knights in shining armor wearing traditional crusader. Mexicans are very dedicated to defining national identity, itself and, for specific historical reasons -- internal diversification and strong external pressure, it is often too much emphasis on the characteristic differences between the national. Therefore, we must see the unique culture of Mexico is formed in what historical conditions. In other words, we have to ask: what are the factors that made Mexico so rich in culture? What factors make the Mexicans to their own cultural issue is so sensitive, so that all related to culture is full of political means? Mexico is connected with Indian and Spain, connected with the ancient and modern. The country across the one important historical juncture, all the way to today, has formed an impressive cultural. It combines all kinds of traditional endowment difference greatly, to create a new national image. Mexico has reached a high level of development, but still need to be developed; it must be placed in between the old and the new world; it is the European and Native American of mixed generations living paradise. The country has many traditional heritage, but at the same time, it tried to seek the road to modernization. Mexico is not only a political center, the most important Spanish in Latin America, colonial era before, two major civilization or Spanish colonial before the most prominent developed three "MSO ameriques civilization" (the Maya civilization, the birthplace of the Aztec civilization). The Aztec empire, has conquered many other indigenous tribes. In modern times, for enhanced coagulation necessity, against external challenges, Mexicans and formed a very strong sense of national pride. Today, Mexico is still facing strong internal and external pressure. We can say, Mexico than America diversification, but also more than American unity. And USA, Mexico's mainstream culture and social system; it is the "western" before and after the independent of time and America is soon, in this sense, it is also a modern country. However, these poses a national culture in Mexico. Mexico is unique in terms of: it integrate the Spanish culture and Indian culture. This combination of performance in all aspects of social life in Mexico, until today still legible. In fact, the Mexicans are concerned, there are many basic problems relating to national collective identity has not been solved yet, some of which belongs to the moral category, for example, the Indians worship pagan, to the living for the sacrifice, whether they should be seen as the barbarians? Europeans take them to God's salvation? Or, Is it right? Ought to be arrogant to the natives, bring about the destruction of the Europeans (Spanish) as the real barbarians? 1992~, the discovery of the new continent in the five hundred anniversary commemorative Kolumb people ", this formulation," whether it's right or not, and the Spaniard is "discovered" America was a head-on "American cultural encounter" fierce debate. At that time, American National Public Radio (NPR) aired Richard Rodriguez (Richard Rodriguez) of an article, put forward a very convincing view. Rodriguez is from the southwestern America the mestizo people (European and Indian hybrid offspring), because of the special identity, his hand by most Americans as heterogeneous, members of minority groups; on the other hand, was pure blood of Indian people (such as the Navajo, Pueblo people) as the Spanish in Europe, white, is the conqueror and oppressor offspring. So, how could he see the raise a Babel of criticism of argument? For Kolumb arrived in America this thing, what is worth celebrating or should be condemned? He told us, the events of the 1492, the most significant is that: it marks the beginning of the new hybrids were his own. In today's Mexico, the difference between people is not the main moral stance or concept system is different, but in income and disparities in education levels in terms of material. Many ordinary Mexicans are grim reality of daily life were overwhelming, there is no spare capacity for the pursuit of spiritual, more didn't think what national identity. In other words, while the discussion on the Mexico culture and ethnic identity to be in full swing, but the real man concerned but mostly to keep silent. They are the focus, related cultural discussion and, they may know, who have the right of national culture, have the ability to define who can bring indirect effects of strong to their lives. Here, "life form mutual fusion state in which" culture and "conscious construction" of culture: culture theory and conceptual once formed, they will become part of the culture, affect their attempts to explain things. Official or authoritative cultural declaration, to the individual psychological imprint of the deep. They will set the rules for personal ambition, which seriously limited individual creativity. We have just from the people's daily cultural understanding and the understanding of culture means to Mexico this two aspects and puts forward some problems. About Mexico's work can be said to be an immense number of books, most of which is very well written, and interest. The introduction of this national survey of the book, a travel guide, blogs and personal impression portrait, there are countless voluminous historical and anthropological writings. Some Mexico towns and villages (Zittrain Di Po as located in the central plateau and Chiapas just Mora) has been the nationHistory scholars and anthropologists repeated visits, study, almost be seen living museum, culture lab or scholars described the "Mecca", so that out of their system, become a part of international anthropology research circle and tourism circle. Can say, anthropological research is like a mirror, reveals the uniqueness and advantages of Mexico culture. Therefore, the description of Mexico's book comes mostly from Europe and North America will be not at all surprising. However, in this regard, Mexico itself is not resigned to playing second fiddle, and great potential of the catch up from behind. These writings about Mexico, often boldly using an integrated approach, trying to extract the essence of the so-called national culture in Mexico, such a definition of "nature", often do not conform to the reality and any specific group or personal experience. On the other hand, there are still some works only for a small region specific in-depth study, write out a nuanced ethnography, as a result, it is a "to see only one spot" too, can not reflect the richness and complexity of Mexico culture on the whole. In view of the general works are always hard to both individual and overall, therefore, the author found that, for some understanding of Mexico culture the most helpful works but is the induction, analysis and interpretation of the content with the least, simple display of every hue of Mexicans living status text. For example, Patrick Oster (Patrick 0ster) of the "Mexican: a national personal portrait" and Judith Adler Hermann's "life in Mexico". People are worried about many aspects, under the trend of the new wave of international commercial pop culture and the impact of globalization, Mexico's traditional and unique cultural values on the verge of extinction. In view of Mexico and American distance is so near, directly by the superpower cast shadows, therefore, the worry is not without reason. We see, even in some of the most remote rural areas, the residual of the former Spanish custom of the time also is rapidly disappearing; the traditional family function is weakened, as more and more people to move to the big city, the family structure has changed; Mexico supermarkets and department store shelves are a surge of American products occupied. However, on the other hand, even if the idea has real basis, such concerns can easily be used in the wrong place or pompous. From a lot of sense, the cultural characteristics of Mexico still has strong vitality and autonomy. After all, the development of culture in any place is always a dynamic and multi-dimensional phenomenon. Unlike in the past, we have today to a considerable extent, aware of the existence of this kind of change and the speed of progress. At least the globalization trend of our time growing there is a benefit, that is, it arouses our vigilance, let us see the construction of the so-called "cultural pure" myth is so dangerous. In this book, we will from many aspects to study cultural topic: condensation and discrete exciting force it contains; when it is used as a tool, how to improve or challenge social solidarity, social members a sense of belonging and identity; when it is used as a concrete practice ceremony, ceremony, how to load the corresponding values; when it is used as a kind of artificial works, how the symbolic expression for specific cognitive Mexico. Because of the limited space, we in Mexico cultural exposition will not exhaustive, can only choose some representative cultural product and process were introduced, in many places also can generalize from. If Mexico's cultural diversity is a true reality, then the unity of the nation also allow all doubt: the basis for this unity is interlinked, Mexico people gradually formed in the history of the common behavior and spiritual. The first half of the book introduces the custom in Mexico, the second part introduces the cultural products of different types. That is to say, the front half part is about "life in the" culture: Mexican daily etiquette, life practice, traditional festivals, they usually have a religious origin, can reflect the Mexicans belief and common values, society as a whole will be combined into one. Relatively speaking, the following chapter is starting from the relatively narrow concept of "culture", introduces several interesting forms of art, including painting, literature, performing, and television, movies and other relatively new media. Even if is such a general overview, we still try to get rid of the traditional way of writing, based on some key points of emphasis and other subtle treatment method, hope to present dynamic views more original, give the reader. Book in writing, to the contemporary customs and culture as the focus, but also the historical roots of their. The past is important, but the book intended stroke scales slightly inclined to the modern, but also to resist the general to Mexico propaganda "stress the past" is a common trend -- if only focusing on the Mexico traditional culture heritage, but don't see it in today's development, will undoubtedly underestimated the national vitality and vigor. The author also hope this book will help readers to understand the complexity of Mexico cultural products, and help to eliminate stereotypes. Octavio Paz in the classic "his lonely maze", in-depth excavation of the soul and ethnic characteristics, Mexico: he points out that the measure of a national scale should not be the abstract philosophical speculation or conjecture, but should be produced the nation's creative works. Through the full range of typical works in this country in the cultural field, enough to make us for the multiplicity of Mexico culture and diversity have a respect and admiration, but also can make the evaluation of our own to these works as a conscious cultural construction play a role in the way. The first chapter "Introduction: historical background, land and society", a concise introduction to Mexico's geography, population, social economy and ethnic status, as well as the main historical and political background. The second chapter summarizes the religion, especially the Catholic history and widespread influence in Mexico. The third chapter introduces the secular festivals and other forms of entertainment, with about Mexican Social Relations and gender roles. According to recent trends series overall intentions and the field of cultural studies, we in the following chapters and not to look beyond the high art and high culture, but also incorporated into pop culture referenceObservation range, from the folk art to the mass media, the one one to be introduced. The mass media on the front (the fourth chapter), is to resist the Mexico mention cultural thought of the original folk art and ancient ruins civilization tendency -- in large scale of Mexico tourism official development, this trend is also very obvious. The film as a modern art form the focus of the fifth chapter, in this regard, Mexico has a proud achievement, the film is fashionable Spanish markets in Latin America and America, much like the Hollywood in the global market of mobile phone battery. The last three chapters will introduce the Mexico Performing Arts (the sixth chapter), literature (the seventh chapter), visual arts and Architecture (Chapter eighth). The latter part of the chapter is not so rich before half part of generality, we will select a number of important works of art in the field of giving details. Overall, this book will give the readers a common sense, but we also strive to provide a general historical frame of reference in the book.
Summary

Mexico is a charming country, ancient Mayan civilization remains here, there are Spanish style beautiful building, more modern magnificent; ornate; fascinating skyscrapers; here you will marvel at the Mayan civilization miracle. Will also enjoy the Spanish style of performing arts, can enjoy the traditional Mexico Food. Today's Mexico in Latin America in the world extremely unique position. It has a rich and mixed culture complex, like a bridge, connecting the north and South America, ancient and modern, developed countries and developing countries. As an emerging economy, it is to show the full of vitality.
the "romantic Mexico" by Peter Standish, Stephen M. Baer, Shi Xiaozhu, Gao Jing. "Romantic Mexico" from the new angle of view, multi-level, all-round introduction of Mexico historical and cultural aspects, let us through the author's style, Mexico style perspective.
Catalogue of books

If the publisher

Chapter background: history, land and social historical stages before

Kolumb era
the colonial era
gained independence in nineteenth Century and the period of the Republic of
the 1910 Revolution and the revolutionary institutional party
Tlatelolco Massacre and later political
Mexico geographical features
demographic
the ethnic and linguistic
localism and centralized

modern economic law and order
the development of education and the existing problems of
medical and health with the

second chapter religious environment problem

Our Lady of Guadalupe church and state
religion and modern life
the ethnic and cultural diversity of

third chapter, social life, leisure and Food
non religious holiday
sports, leisure and entertainment
family, friends and social etiquette

Food gender roles and wine
fourth chapter mass media
colonial journalism
the first daily
19


electronic media radio and television media in the era of
New > fifth chapter film
movie since the age of newspapers and magazines
revolution media
"excelsior" split
Mexico newspaper publishing industry status of
Picture Book Publishing childhood: silent film and documentary
> Movie golden age urban drama
pasture comedy start
new social awareness
Fernando de Fuentes
Kang Ting frasnian
Amy Leo ("Indians") Fernandez Fuentes and
Golden age of other film directors and film type
Pedro 因凡特 and suburban film
the end of the golden age of
Lewis Bounou El in Mexico
1960 years: Crisis and neonatal
contemporary film flow
sixth chapter performing arts

from independence to Colonial era since the revolution of traditional music
independent drama music
revolutionary nationalism
contemporary popular music and the recording industry

in twentieth Century twentieth Century the dance stage art
seventh chapter literature
new Spanish period: modern development period of childhood

independence movement of Mexico literature literature style
Altamirano nationalism literary renaissance movement and the novel: first literary occupation and dissimilation
the intellectual revolution: Youth Arts Association
revolutionary literature and the novel
avant-garde literary and artistic innovation:

in 1940 after the literary world "new novel" the rise of the
popular poetry and commercial novel
female literary explosion and other recent advances in
eighth chapter vision the art and architecture of
pre Hispanic art achievement
colonial art < br > nineteenth Century art vigorous development
twentieth Century painting art new style
mural movement and the Askew Vera National Art Museum
mural art in other art forms.
architectural art and style of the

> appendix. Thank
Chapter excerpt

In this chapter, we will Mexico of historical, natural and social status are summarized, the key topic is: historical inheritance and change, the traditional and the modern, centralization and local protectionism, unity and diversity, etc.. A strong nationalist sentiment and political will is the force to promote national integration. Although it appears from the outside perspective, Mexico may be a unity of the whole, but in fact, the country still exist various problems such as tension, by caste, class differentiation problems. From a certain perspective, Mexico has its own different from other Latin American Spanish national unique. Other Latin American Spanish speaking countries, no one can be like Mexico, although it has experienced a history of ups and downs, but still so actively back its own deep cultural roots. No one will like it, the influence of European culture and non European culture as to melt into a furnace, and the elements of Indian play a decisive role in a part of the official culture. Obviously, these characteristics also make Mexico is different from that of its main rivals -- America, the fact that the two countries had formed a sharp contrast to the full range of. Just imagine, we in the main roots of modern America culture, if the focus is placed on the first European immigrants set foot on this land, certainly is incredible; for most Latin American countries, also probably the case. In these cultures, from non European component's contribution is usually only ranked second. One of the biggest and contrast to the number of Mexico, Argentina and Uruguay between the two countries. They also like USA, mainly European immigrants of the world. A political center of Peru's colonial era: like Mexico, Spanish colonists also established a viceroyalty of here, to put their own cultural grafting on to a strong indigenous cultures, however, modern Peru is different from Mexico, social stratification and its more adhering to the legacy of the colonial era. In contrast, Mexico is a multicultural "mulatto" and "man in the middle", it sets up a bridge, connecting north and South America, ancient and modern, developed countries and developing countries. Two major factors contributed to Mexico out of the ordinary. The effect of two kinds of culture, Mexico's early history -- American Indian culture and the culture of Spain, have a very strong strength. Mexico is the Spanish colonial powers proud American base (1521 18lO years, and it has even been stately called "New Spain"), the birthplace of the two great civilization is the most prominent Spanish colonial ago developed three "MSO ameriques civilization". To meet the European culture and the culture of Indian, is not an accidental phenomenon. The Spaniard has already heard the brilliant civilization of Indian, and in 1519, an expedition in Henan Cortes (Hernan Cortes) led by Cuba set off, they'd have a clear goal, is to conquer this land grab, where the power and wealth, let the local Indians to Christianity (Roman Catholic) belief. However, a historic irony is the result, although the Spanish colonists initially intended to remove Indian pagan worship ", let the light of truth" to illuminate this piece of land, but in the next Mexico history, occupies the mainstream status of Spanish culture began to undertake to defend and save it to destroy the MSO ameriques civilization responsibility. In this "New Spain colonized territory in the kingdom of Spain," the power of the strong, the desire for independence of the people, but it is the upper class elite -- on the surface, which is really a strange thing. To nineteenth Century, Mexico in the war of independence, anti Spanish sentiment and pro Indian speech has become logical, become a very effective cohesive slogan. Second factors related to modern society: Mexico territory and USA border, which affects the political, economic and cultural power, also contributed to the characteristics of Mexico out of the ordinary. The Mexican border, sometimes referred to as "the longest continuous border between the developed and developing countries". About the implications of this relationship, 19 and twentieth Century at the turn of the president of Mexico Porfirio Diaz has a famous saying: poor Mexico, so far from God, so close to the America. It is because of and American so close, coupled with its own doped with Indian culture and European culture heritage and cultural characteristics, the Mexicans had a strong sense of self, for its unique cultural development and feel proud, thus shaping the national independence and the warm feelings of nationalism. However, these same factors, but also to the Mexico cultural identity poses a problem: what is the essence of the cultural identity, has long become a topic of intense debate. For example, this just as the human self examination, can be seen as a kind of mental ability, characterization can also be regarded as the inner sense of insecurity. The unique part of Mexico, often make proud of some other once again reduced to a colony of Spain's Latin American countries, and obtain the enlightenment from. They admired the Mexicans can successfully cope with difficult historical environment, the cultural elements of relative harmonyAll blend into one harmonious whole. In their eyes, Mexico is a spirited defence of daring vanguard Latin American culture, against the Anglo America culture strong invasion. Mexico has long (at least from the success of the 1910 Revolution) enjoys political stability, make it become the other Latin countries to escape the safe haven of unrest. For example, in 1940, a large number of support the Republic in the Spanish Civil War who went into exile in Mexico, of which there are many elites, so here's intellectual and academic circles have been greatly enrich. Also, since 1970 time, many of the refugees from Pinochet (Pinochet) under the rule of the military dictatorship in Chile and Argentina fled to Mexico. There are some people, they are not affected by the specific persecution at home, but found home -- Columbia novelist Gabriel Garcia Marcos in Mexico (Gabriel Garcia Mdrquez) is a representative. An interesting phenomenon is that, even under the immigration and globalization, between different cultural boundaries are increasingly blurred, but at once is Latin America Spanish colonial, but have a tendency to draw further apart. Some Latin American countries began to alienate Mexico, believe it America go too near. Many countries want to emphasize their ethnic or cultural characteristics, rather than to a group and Mexico mixed, they also added to the stereotype of Mexico group. They did not know that in view of Mexico's stereotypical negative understanding and prejudice, in the most serious USA is. From the above can be seen, to correctly understand Mexico, comparative law should be a kind of effective way: a comparison of the similarities and differences between Mexico and other Latin American countries, on the other hand, compares it with the USA were. P001-003
Editor recommends

In the eyes of many foreigners, Mexico is an exotic exotic land. There is a beautiful coastline, Latin Rhythm, lively, romantic hero Pancho Vera and full of revolutionary spirit of folk songs and mustachioed man, broad brimmed hat, Griddle Cake corn steamed pork with rice flour, corn...... Where is the Indian people and places to live. Today, surrounded by the ruins of an ancient civilization in the quiet soaring tropical rain forest, or is covered under the tall volcano smoky shadow. We can go there looking for adventure, escape, and then returned safely to his familiar world. At least, we see in the travel trailer is a Mexico. But these propaganda to convince us that is a use of selective exaggerated image constructed, distorted reality myth. The "romantic Mexico" by Peter Standish, Stephen M. Baer, Shi Xiaozhu, Gao Jing, the purpose is to explore the question about Mexico image, through them to see a real Mexico.
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