Latin American Civilization

Date of publication:2008-4   Press: Fujian Education Publishing House   Author:Hao Mingwei, Xu Shicheng   Pages´╝Ü356  
Preface

Illustration: the second chapter, the natural geographical environment, natural geographical environment is the parent of civilization. To know a civilization, must first learn to produce this civilization, natural geographical environment. A specific geographical, natural environment, must breed a geographical characteristics of civilization. Therefore, the geography become an important content in the research of civilization. Latin American civilization at its birth, development process, is influenced by the natural environment, the geographical. We do not intend to fully describes the Latin American geography, natural condition, it is another subject task. We only briefly, mainly describe bred on Latin America and the development of geographical, natural factors and features very influential. Latin America is located in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere, north of Mexico and Rio Grande America junction, South to Cape Horn, 13500 kilometers in length, maximum width of 5000 km, east to the Atlantic, West Pacific, with many a large and small islands. Concentrated in the Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles (including the island of Cuba, Santo Island, the island of Puerto Rico and Jamaica Island) and the Lesser Antilles (including the Bahamian archipelago, Trinidad Island, Tobago Island, the island of Barbados, Barbuda, Antigua, Saint Lucia, Vicente Island, Grenada Island, Dominica Island, the island of Martinique, Guadeloupe Island, Aruba, Curacao, Tortuga Island, etc.); in addition, scattered in the Atlantic and Pacific islands are quite important in Margareta Island, Falkland Islands, the Galapagos Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The total area of 20700000 square kilometers, population 560000000 (2006 statistics). The existing 33 independent countries, and 13 independent regions (a division of Guyana in South America, the rest are Caribbean islands, belonging to Britain, France and Holland, USA jurisdiction). To the East, Latin America and Europe through the island in the Atlantic, Africa connected; to the west, in the Pacific Islands Polynesian islands and Micronesia and Oceania and Asia are communicated; north, through America, Canada and Asia close. Contact with the outside world is convenient, close to Latin America and other regions of the cultural exchange.
Summary

Ru Xin, deputy director of the academic committee of comparative study, Professor Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, director of the center of world civilization. Born in 1931 in Wujiang, Jiangsu. John's University in Shanghai in 1949 1956, a famous professional research philosophy scholar Mr. He Lin Hagel, after graduation engaged in research work in philosophy, a former researcher, China Academy of Social Sciences, vice president, and is also the Philosophy Institute, deputy director of the academic committee of the state council. The main job in the flesh in academic institutions served are: China Association of aesthetics, President of the China political association and the international philosophy and Humanities Council Vice Chairman, East German foreign academician of the Academy of science, Korea Keimyung University honorary doctor of philosophy. Mainly engaged in the history of western philosophy, especially of classical philosophy, aesthetics of germany. His major works include "criticism on Hagel category" (Jiang Pizhi) "of western philosophy and aesthetics," "the history of western aesthetics." "the history of Western Aesthetics of" beauty "in looking for" etc.. CCTV large TV series "civilization Road, world civilization global tour" overall planning.
Author brief introduction

In recent years, researches on world civilization has drawn more and more attention, and this is closely related to changes in the international situation and the world pattern after the cold war. With the rapid development of the acceleration of economic globalization and science and technology, economic communication, division of labor and cooperation, advanced transportation and communication, especially the modern information technology to produce and widely used, to overcome the past the long history of the geographic barriers in various countries, nationalities and regions separated, the world the connection part become an interdependent whole, and the whole world economic integration into a huge network. At present, although the world is still not peace, but peace and development have become the theme of world development. Competition between nations, mainly has not decided on the military strength, which depends on the overall national strength in the material and spiritual civilization in two aspects. For the development of a country, the nature and degree of civilization is an important factor for long-term effect. Therefore, many scholars begin to study attention to civilization and various civilization civilization and culture, factors that will play a more important role in the twenty-first Century world development process, to play a greater role. Study of world civilization is a very broad academic field of interdisciplinary research, involving many subjects. The world has a long history of civilization, in different poses and with different expressions, rich and colorful, which embodies the history and reality closely. Modern life of people is not a passive water, the continuation and development of ancient life history but; nor has gone forever dead, but still live in the contemporary reality. Human civilization is yesterday our present-day civilization root, only truly understand human yesterday, in order to better grasp the human today, and more consciously to prospect and create human tomorrow. From this point of view, the world civilization history, has not only theoretical significance, but also has a strong practical significance. We believe that the world civilization, the first requirement is that we must adhere to the Marx materialism, in the spirit of respecting the history, seek truth from facts, based on a large number of first-hand information, to investigate the rule and characteristics of each of the development of civilization, and make an objective and scientific evaluation. Civilization all over the world are specific human activities in different natural environment and the specific historical conditions of the creation, with the evolution and development of its own historical rule, a glorious period of their own and the great achievements, plays different roles in history at different times. Due to various reasons, some civilization history later decline, this is a Dialectical Laws phenomenon, does not mean that civilization itself inherently superior to the other branch. In the past for a long time in the history of research and cultural studies in western countries has been dominated by the so-called "Europe centric" point of view, the Western civilization as inherently superior, regard oneself head and shoulders above others, and with the Western values and standards to judge other civilization, even attempted to Western civilization to rule all the land. History has proved that, the self - centered cultural hegemony concept is extremely wrong. Before the rise in Western civilization, other adjacent areas such as Egypt and Mesopotamia had reached a high level of civilization and created many brilliant achievements, while western civilization was growing benefiting from other civilizations feeding. As the source of Western civilization and the ancient Greek civilization, for example, whether in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, architecture, sculpture and myth, religion and so on, the ancient Greeks from other civilizations absorbed abundant nutrition. Therefore, all the achievements of civilization in history is a valuable contribution to the whole of human civilization, should be fully recognized and respected. An important conclusion of our study is that the world civilization must confirm the diversity of various civilizations and cultural diversity. Throughout human history, civilization and culture since ancient times there are human beings, have commonness in satisfying people's basic needs and expression from the depths of human thoughts and feelings, but in the ways of expression but each has its particularity, different feature rich and mutual the. In fact, the generality and the particularity of civilization, diversity is not incompatible, diametrically opposed, but dialectical unity, the common lies in the diversity and particularity. There is a point of view, we are living in the age of globalization today, there will be the so-called "world civilization" a unified, everyone will become a "citizen of the world", the world culture will be towards the direction of convergence development, diversity will gradually disappear. This is a great misunderstanding, the actual situation on the contrary, economy to strengthen contacts and exchanges between the peoples of all countries and regions, which not only has no special and differential elimination of civilization and culture, but to make them gain new vitality and increasingly towards diversity direction. The diversity of civilizations and cultures should have thistle fully respect, because the power is the development of the world lies in the coexistence of this diversity. If the world civilizations original really consists of substantially with the Western civilization as the so-called "global civilization" dominant place, then the worldNot to be too simple, insipid? Now different civilizations and the existence of cultural diversity has been approved by the international society and affirmation. In 1998 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, identified in 2001 as "year" dialogue between different civilizations, put forward to develop and strengthen dialogue and exchanges between different civilizations in the world, maintaining cultural diversity, mutual understanding between nations, the people of the region's, to remove the threat to peace, and work together to address global issues. In 2001, UNESCO Congress unanimously adopted the "Declaration on cultural diversity in the world", the cultural diversity to "the common heritage of mankind", think it is necessary for human, and points out that we should regard it as a life can continue to update the wealth, can guarantee a a process of human existence. We study the world civilization today, is to learn a new revelation and inspiration from the "common heritage of mankind", to contribute to the creation of today's civilization. The development of world civilization history tells us, need contacts and exchanges between different civilizations often, and the mutual absorption and fusion. Civilization does not retire, solitary freedom and self sealing stuff, it needs through dialogue with other civilizations, contacts and exchanges from the outside constantly obtain and nutritional supplement, made new vitality, full of new life, can grow sturdily, development. A kind of civilization, no matter how brilliant, once closed, contacts and exchanges with other civilizations to world civilization, internal innovation and power will advance gradually dried up, become ossified and decline. Therefore, for the development of civilization itself, dialogue and communication is also essential. But in recent years has been to promote the so-called "clash of Civilizations", the different civilization that can't communicate with each other, opposite things, differences between the assertion civilization inevitably leads to the fierce confrontation and conflict, and the conflict of civilizations mentioned the post Cold War world development "mode" to look at the height of the. This theory is also contrary to civilization development historical fact. The whole process of the development of the world civilization, contradiction and collision between different civilizations though often occur, but not necessarily the cause of irreconcilable conflict, the one to destroy the other party. History did civilization was destroyed in the fierce conflict of civilizations in the case, but such conflicts are often not by differences among civilizations caused, but mainly because of driving behind the material interests. Generally speaking, different civilizations coexist in peace, mutual influence, mutual penetration and integration of each variable, is the development of world civilization habit and the mainstream. We should be more objective, comprehensive look at the relationship between different civilizations, and should not be one-sided exaggerated them between contradictory and conflict. Known for his research in the world civilization French historian Braudel think, civilization is not immutable and frozen, it has the active L, and stability. One of the essential characteristics of civilization is a mutual communication and borrowing, which put things in their own output, and borrowing and absorption of other civilizations, such borrowing is selected, that is borrowed from the useful things for them to enrich their own. At the same time, civilization and "refused to borrow", which refused to own not apply things to keep the uniqueness and stability of their own. Braudel's view is more in line with the actual history. Generally speaking, the different cultures is developed in the benign interactive relationship of such. Facing the world a variety of different civilizations, how should treat? We think, China traditional philosophy advocates "harmony but not Sameness" thought, if it is the modern interpretation, can be used as processing between different civilizations mutual relations basic principle. The so-called "harmony but not Sameness", the premise of the first fully recognize and respect the existence of different things in the world, the difference between, affirmation and allows the distinction between things and the differences, then different things to mediation and proper arrangements for treatment, the conflict between them and the differences are reconciled, finally achieve the overall harmonious development. According to this principle to deal with the relationship between civilizations, we should make efforts to maintain the diversity of civilization, advocating the rights of peoples to independently choose their own development path suitable to its own national conditions, to maintain and develop their own civilization. People in different social systems, different levels of economic development, cultural background, religious beliefs and values, life style also each are not identical, must not force them to accept a particular civilization, take the unifying development model, so as to ensure the diversity of civilizations is not violated and healthily. At present, the threat of war still exist, more efforts should be made to promote dialogue and exchanges between different civilizations in based on peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding, mutual tolerance, equality, respect each other, learn from each other, seek common development, make the world more colorful. This is also conducive to strengthening friendly cooperation of people all over the world, the maintenance of world peace. These are some of the basic view of the world civilization of our. We study the world civilization, in the final analysis or for the construction Chinese socialist civilization service. We should not only know the motherland of Chinese civilization and glorious achievements, but also need to have knowledge about other civilizations in the world, so that we can compare, through dialogue and exchanges and absorbing all the positive achievements of world civilization, Chinese civilization more light; at the same time, according to the world civilization development situation, formulate a set can push our civilization construction, development strategy and to respond effectively to the challenges of foreign civilization. It is for this purpose, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences set up a comparative study of "the center of world civilization", and the "research group of" world civilization, organizations inside and outside the hospital, dozens of experts and scholars points of cooperative research, "world civilization system" this set of multi volume works hard for many years is the experts the fruit of labor. The pattern of world civilization, its forming process and no preset a unified standards and procedures, but in the long river of history, in the comprehensive effect of various elements, the natural form, so we should not, also cannot set a unified standard for segmentation. We passed long in-depth study, batted, in reference to the mode of civilization theory of international academia popular, such as Toynbee, Huntington and other scholars of the theory, but mainly in the specific problems with case analysis principleFrom the actual situation, the form of civilization, religious, national, regional, in countries as diverse standard. Such as Latin American civilization is the civilization because regional plate, Islamic civilization is condensed by religious, America, Canada is because countries formed their own civilization style.
Catalogue of books

In order for Latin America first Latin American named the second chapter, the third chapter of natural geographical environment in Latin America region and cultural characteristics of the first fourth chapters of ancient civilization of Latin America, Latin American indigenous origin two, Latin America, the ancient civilization of the fifth chapter of Aziz Turk, former Aziz Turk civilization, civilization, civilization two Aziz Turk the sixth chapter the Mayan civilization, a historical stage of development, the basis for the existence of two agriculture three, trade development activator four, social organization and political system in five, mythology and religion, the cultural achievements of six the seventh chapter Incan civilization a pre Incan civilization, the eighth chapter two, Incan civilization of Latin American civilization and the ancient civilization of China relationship research status, historical review two, our views and second Latin American modern civilization form (from 1492 to late nineteenth Century) the ninth chapter politics, Spanish colonization of the Americas two, Portugal, Brazil, French colonies in America three American colonies of French Guiana, now Haiti and other security Antilles The four Holland Island, the American colonies -- now Suriname and Antilles Islands, Denmark five colonies in America today, the British Virgin Islands six colonies in America now Guyana and the Antilles Islands tenth chapter economy, Spanish colonization of the Americas two, Portuguese colonial America Brazil three, French American colonies of French Guiana, now Haiti and other Antilles the four Holland Island, the American colonies one one now Suriname and Antilles Islands five, Britain's American colonies and the Antilles Islands one one Ikei Ana eleventh chapter society, Spanish colonization of the Americas two, Portugal, Brazil, French colonies in America three American colonies of French Guiana, now Haiti and other Antillean islands four, Dutch colonial America now Suriname and dioxin Antilles Islands five, British colonial America now Guyana and the Antilles Islands twelfth chapter one religion, Spanish colonization of the Americas two, Portugal, Brazil, French colonies in America three American colonies of French Guiana, now Haiti and other Antillean islands, Holland four The American colonies and the Antilles Islands, now Suriname five British colonies, now Guyana and the Antilles Islands, the thirteenth chapter culture, Spanish colonization of the Americas two, Portugal, Brazil, French colonies in America three American colonies of French Guiana, now Haiti and other Antillean islands, Holland one four colonies in America today and the Antilles Islands, Suriname five British America colonies of present-day Guyana and Antilles Islands third series of Latin American modern civilization development (late eighteenth Century to early twentieth Century) the fourteenth chapter the spread of enlightenment thought and practice, philosophy and political thoughts, economic thoughts in the three, two education, science and technology four fifteenth chapter Democratic Republic thought, utilitarianism and positivism, communication and practice the democratic and Republic thought two, charter three, "admitted the transplantation of the system because the phenomenon of" four, the separation of church and state and freedom of religious belief, "five civilization and barbarism" for six, utilitarianism, positivism spread and practice of the sixteenth chapter of the development of literature, a neo classical poetry and independence. The singer, two, romantic literature three, four late gauchesque literature, romanticism and realism, modernism literature five chapter seventeenth architecture and art, building two, art eighteenth chapter of Chinese civilization, Chinese and Latin America two, custom three, production skills and fighting spirit and fourth in Latin America modern civilization (early twentieth Century to early twenty-first Century) the nineteenth chapter of political thought, nationalism, socialism, Prebish two a "center periphery theory, dependency theory" two three, four new liberalism, new structuralism in Chapter twenty-first, the development of modern literature, realism and avant-garde parallel development period (19lO ~ 1959) two, literature "prosperity" period (1960 ~ 90's at the end of three, Latin American Literature) to twenty-first Century (late twentieth Century to early twenty-first Century) four Latin American literature, the basic characteristics of the twenty-second chapter of modern art and architecture, modern architecture, a two Mexico fresco movement and the twentieth Century Latin American painting three, Latin American movie hundred year The vicissitudes of life four, Latin American music, dance the twenty-third chapter liberation theology, a Latin American Catholic Church two, Latin American Catholic church three, differentiation "guerrilla" father Camilo Torres four, bishop of Brazil, Freire's "Enlightenment Movement" and Kamala's peace - five, Medellin conference six, Gutierrez and the "liberation theology", the Puebla conference seven eight, continue to struggle in nine, liberation theology still exist and are very active, the twenty-fourth chapter of the national integration in Latin America, Latin American Indians in the ethnic composition of two three, Latin American countries on the Indian national policy four, Latin American Indian Movement rise up @##@ bibliography In the international academic circles "western center theory" and "the clash of Civilizations", Chinese scholars put forward their own theory of civilization, the world civilization is divided into 12 kinds of civilization system. Comparative study of world civilization China Academy of Social Sciences Center organized more than 40 famous scholars, which lasted more than 10 years, compiling "Slav civilization "volume 12. CCTV super large TV series "civilization Road, world civilization global tour" which was designed, and take it as the theoretical foundation.
Chapter excerpt

"Latin American Civilization (revised Illustrated Edition)" published by Fujian Education Publishing house.
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