"The second volume history of civilizations of Central Asia" relationship between flow and culture the various population and 700 BC to ad 250 years of central asia. During this period, there have been several nomadic civilization and civilized people settled, some live in grassland, some live in Oasis area. The difference between them because of the rise of the Achaemenid Empire exacerbated. The invasion of Alexander the great change in this scene. Nomads driven back, settled civilization has been strengthened, and quickly occupied the dominant position. With the rise of the Greek buck Bactrian Kingdom, Central Asian civilization due to Zoroastrianism, Greek religion and Buddhism gradually mixed and changed radically, laid the foundations of Arabia before the conquest of Central Asian civilization. First Century BC, Saka established a series of kingdom in eastern Iran and Western India; to first Century, these territories will belong to the Parthian rule, their empire from Sistan until the India River, and then crossed the India river. At the same time, the Empire of Kushan increasingly rising, the overthrow of the Parthian rule, and the annexation of the province of India. Between the Mediterranean and Chinese silk road to Central Asia brought about the prosperity of trade. Despite the opening of the sea, but the international channel Bactrian camel caravans traveling has been used for hundreds of years. Until about 234 BC Kushan Empire to meet new powerful enemy -- the Sassanid Iran -- and eventually collapse.
Author: (Hungary) Hal Mata translator: Xu Wenkan
Publishing program demonstrates how to write "history of civilizations of Central Asia" International Scientific Committee of the list of contributors list introduction the first chapter in western central Iran and ancient nomads chapter second Medes and Achaemenid Iran third chapter Alexander and in Central Asia's successors in Chapter fourth sub kingdom of Greece fifth chapter the sixth chapter Eastern Central Asian nomads who the seventh chapter the eighth chapter and the migration of Saka Parthians and India - the ninth chapter of the culture of Xinjiang area in Chapter tenth, the Huns and the Chinese under the control of the western regions of the eleventh chapter of twelfth chapter Kushans Kushan Central Asia by turbidity and social system, the thirteenth chapter Kushan Kingdom City and city life in the fourteenth chapter the Kushan Empire Kushan art religious fifteenth chapter sixteenth chapter Greece - the kingdom of Bactria and plug the language and literature of seventeenth chapters Kushan Dynasty language and literature eighteenth chapter central northwest the regime nineteenth chapter Alexander after the invasion of southern Central Asian nomads chapter twentieth Sassanid Iran rise conclusion map reference
Digest in fact Alexander did not directly to Arnaud's March, this means he is quite aware of the indigenous chiefs in zone of the terrain, and the leaders from other tribes good guide, who are these tribal leaders, belong to what faction? We know the name of one of two people -- Ke method use (cophaeus, may be a leader under the Kabul Valley) and ASA Gate (Assagates, may Asvagupta, Axi Po Gupta). But in March, when Arnaud had kept in touch with Alexander, there is no news about them. Alion, Ribera del Duero told us Alexander strengthened the Euler and Massa the fortifications, in order to rule the region and 巴济拉 city. He served as the "piney Kano India river area governor", and further strengthened by another call Orlo repayment of city (Orobatis) fortifications, the city roughly in the 伐鲁萨 (now Mardan District of sabaz Garr Xi, Shahbazgarhi), where Ashoka edict that cliff. Because here is located at a strategic location, can be used as offensive Buner enemy bases, is a good understanding of strengthening the fortifications. Perhaps it is here, Alexander made the future plan of campaign, the enemy out of Arnaud, and to prevent the Abbey Saris interfere in this area. To Arnaud, Stein from the speech that Arnaud's (Aornos) U port is located in India, where India river near the present-day Karakorum highway una Shan, Takot, but "Buner" may be "error - Arnaud's" a word. If so, any peak in Buner (there are several) are likely to be the last siege. Alexander was determined to capture Arnaud, and so on to there. The first city he got called Ebo Lima, the ancient Ann Bo Lima (Ambulima). Because of its located adjacent to the India River Road to una mountain, Stein think that Al (Arab), and Eger Mon is thought to be an Bella, an important juncture, from Shabazz Gal F to get there. Both are of strategic importance. As an outstanding strategist, Alexander left experienced clutter Lars and part of an army, he personally to Arnaud, march. If like Theodoros and the ladder was described as, Arnaud, India is located in the right bank of the river, it must be admitted that it is in una mountain Pearsall, from Ambon along the India river or from an Bella Kagge Room and chuck Sal off to get there. But it is very difficult to understand when Eli Seth (A Sasai Nur's brother) occupied territory is included in Buner, how can Alexander arrived in pearsall. The classical historians make us believe that after Alexander conquer Arnaud to deal with Eli Seth. If it can be concluded that Eli Seth from Baricco Te's fleeing Army leaders, Eger Meng think he will hide in the dust, because is located in northern Kansai, Elam karakal. Anyway, to Arnaud, is a part of the battle of Alexander Bona M. After this triumph he strengthened the local fortifications, "put the garrison to Cici Cotta J rules" (Alion, Ribera del Duero, IV.30.4). After a hard battle, Alexander eventually conquer ASA Messenia and the Bank of India River area. When Nicanor was appointed governor, we know there are two native chiefs: Por Jose Law Tis Sangers and Bunar Cici Cotta J (Sasigupta) the most distal. After Alexander and Taxila 79 tough battle of Buner, Alexander Li River in the India river at a good place frame bridge. Alion, Ribera del Duero (V.3.5) described his action: to Diego India River, Alexander found Heffes TeAng has built a bridge over the river, also built two 30 paddle warships and many boats. He also saw many Indians 塔克西利斯 gift sent him money, there are 200 tower, 3000 Head of cattle, more than 10000 sheep for the ritual use, there are 30 elephant. Tucker Hillis also sent 700 cavalry to reinforce, he claimed to be the largest Taxila city between the India River and 希达斯 Peace River to Alexander. Alion, Ribera del Duero (V.8.2 and below) continues: then Alexander from the India River, came to the bustling metropolis of Taxila, this city is between the India River and the 希达斯 Peace River's largest city. He has the city leaders and local Indians 塔克西利斯 friendly reception. He tried to meet their demands, the adjacent areas designated for them. Mountain Indian leaders Abbey saris sent messengers to come, including the Abbey, the younger brother and the other protagonist. This region of the princes Halas also sent messengers sent gifts. In Taxila, Alexander also held regular Fiesta and sports and horse racing. He appointed Ma Chai, son of Phillips to the area supervisor, leaving the garrison and the sick and wounded, and then marched to the Greek Diez peace river. Alion, Ribera del Duero said Abby Saris as "mountain Indian leaders" is a very interesting. If this is true, we can not speculate in mountain Indians Gaugamela combat troops are sent by him? Abby Saris had been opposed to Alexander, his opponent, Om Faith stood by Alexander, which also can be used as a circumstantial evidence. Abe Saris once sent his troops to support Ola and Bunar in the Messenia resistance to Alexander. Now just a friendly envoy to Taxila and never go with Alexander, but Alexander's beat him at his own game, pretending to accept his. The ladder was (Ⅷ.12.12 - 16) to provide more material: when Alexander Wen Om Faith is to be more strong labor or soldiers, he answered, he is working with two tribal leaders to fight, so we need more soldiers than ploughman. The two leaders are Abby Saris and Porras. But Porras is stronger, more influence. This two people control and Diez Peace River, and determined with any of the invading enemy a bet win or lose. Om Griffith with the consent of Alexander according to local customs, played with his father's name Royal Banner, people called him. Celis, because this name along with the transfer of power. So he hospitality Alexander for three days, fourth days, he put the supply 赫法斯 提昂 troops quality rations to let Alexander look, and then to Alexander and all his gold and 80 Silver Tower lun. Om his generosity that Alexander be overjoyed, many gifts he not only to face a cult, but also come up with 1000 tower Lun, from the spoils of the gold and silver vessels of saddle many Persian fabrics and his 30 horses with him I use. The ladder was (Ⅷ.13.3) tell us: Alexander is determined to pass and Diez Peace River, then to arachosia rebellion, scattered Tethys had been escorted to him, also seized 30 elephant....... A chief Sa Markus India state (Samaxus) also tied to. He has supported Palestinian scattered tis rebellion. Alexander to the rebels and their allies in captivity, to like to 塔克西利斯 custody, to 希达斯 Peace River burst. This history make people re-examine the toast of India river at Gaugamela battle. Ba San Tethys don't know where the arrested Sa Markus, but if that faith 桑布斯 said believed (according to the views of Eger Mon), we can understand the intention of Alexander in the India River Valley in the battle, and captured Ba Santis is India River Basin Gaugamela war the toast then staged a grand opera. About these events Plutarch added; after it received many 塔克西利斯 gift, Alexander return to more gifts, finally also for 塔克西利斯 health drink, and gave him 1000 tower and silver. During this period the Taxila have called a Kautilya (Kautilya) people, namely the India politics classics "arthashastra" author, he is known all over the world because of the Maurya Dynasty founder Chandragupta teacher. Plutarch records: Chandragupta (Sedlo Cotta J, sandroc:0ttos) I was a young, met Alexander. He often said that Alexander can be an easy job to occupy the whole country. Because the king (a king of the Ganges Valley to NANDA Dynasty) and temper bad family, hatred and contempt by the civil and military officials. Justin (Justin, XV.4.15) added: this man was of humble origin, but for the extraordinary courage inspired, eager to get the throne, he was bold to speak against Alexander by ordering the death of. But he seek safety in flight and survived. Unfortunately, we do not know that Chandragupta as to when and where to meet with Alexander, but because Alexander was in Taxila, there seems to be the most likely to meet. Alexander and Porras he hospitality Alexander for three days, fourth days, he put the supply 赫法斯 提昂 troops quality rations to let Alexander look, and then to Alexander and all his gold and 80 Silver Tower lun. Om his generosity that Alexander be overjoyed, many gifts he not only to face a cult, but also come up with 1000 tower Lun, from the spoils of the gold and silver vessels of saddle many Persian fabrics and his 30 horses with him I use. The ladder was (Ⅷ.13.3) tell us: Alexander is determined to pass and Diez Peace River, then to arachosia rebellion, scattered Tethys had been escorted to him, also seized 30 elephant....... A chief Sa Markus India state (Samaxus) also tied to. He has supported Palestinian scattered tis rebellion. Alexander to the rebels and their allies in captivity, to like to 塔克西利斯 custody, to 希达斯 Peace River burst. This history make people re-examine the toast of India river at Gaugamela battle. Ba San Tethys don't knowWhere is arrested, but if Sa Markus faith 桑布斯 said believed (according to the views of Eger Mon), we can understand the intention of Alexander in the India River Basin of the campaign, and captive Ba San Tethys is the India River Basin in the toast in Gaugamela war staged a grand opera. About these events Plutarch added; after it received many 塔克西利斯 gift, Alexander return to gift more, and finally as 塔克西利斯 health drink, and gave him 1000 tower and silver. During this period the Taxila have called a Kautilya (Kautilya) people, namely the India politics classics "arthashastra" author, he is known all over the world because of the Maurya Dynasty founder Chandragupta teacher. Plutarch records: Chandragupta (Sedlo Cotta J, sandroc:0ttos) I was a young, met Alexander. He often said that Alexander can be an easy job to occupy the whole country. Because the king (a king of the Ganges Valley to NANDA Dynasty) and temper bad family, hatred and contempt by the civil and military officials. Justin (Justin, XV.4.15) added: this man was of humble origin, but for the extraordinary courage inspired, eager to get the throne, he was bold to speak against Alexander by ordering the death of. But he seek safety in flight and survived. Unfortunately, we do not know that Chandragupta as to when and where to meet with Alexander, but because Alexander was in Taxila, there seems to be the most likely to meet. Alexander and Porras from Taxila to 希达斯 Peace River, Alexander has two main road choice.......
Order UNESCO director general Federico Maillol to teach one of the goals of UNESCO announced in the "organization law" in, is the "development and the promotion of contacts between peoples, and use this method to achieve the mutual understanding, to a more real, more comprehensive understanding of each other's life." Published in 1968, "the history of the development of human science and culture" is the UNESCO early a major initiative, aimed at promoting the people all over the world special contribution to human history, strengthen their collective destiny consciousness. The world history work is currently undergoing major changes, and then followed by a series of regional publishing projects, including "Africa history" and still in the planning stage of Latin America, the Caribbean and the Islamic culture historical works. A part of the launch of the "history of civilizations of Central Asia" is the expansion of the publication in the plan. UNESCO will only in this set of regional historical works of the second, is appropriate. Because, Central Asia and Africa, its cultural heritage often can not become the main focus of history. But since ancient times, the region was occurred in Eurasia population flow. Especially in the ancient and medieval history of the world, its formation depends largely on the Mongolia plateau from the Caspian Sea to the vast area of grassland, desert, continued from the oasis and the mountain peoples. From the Homa epic "Odyssey" mentioned in the 基密里安, Ciro Dodd described the Scythians, due to its continuous attack forced the emperor to build the Great Wall China Hun, in sixth Century the Empire expanded to the boundary of the ancient Turkic people, Chinese notorious Qi Dan people, until thirteenth Century, suddenly appeared in the history of the world the reign of Gen Gi Khan the Mongols, Central Asian nomads of Eurasia two civilizations together to define the scope, test their courage and endurance. Only in the nomadic culture to the people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia is not enough. Because it would ignore the nomadic internal central Asia and settled, symbiosis complex between herders and farmers. But the most important is to ignore some big city in Central Asia, such as Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva, they were built in the late Middle Ages, became a center of excellence in intellectual exploration and artistic creation. The philosopher and scientist Avi Sena (Bukhara) important works and Timurid Dynasty those timeless architectural art, embodies the grassland and desert of Central Asia on the thriving and prosperous culture in the middle ages. Of course, not the development of civilizations of Central Asia from nothing and become. The ubiquitous influence of Islam, and ingrained. The great civilization of Eurasia around on this piece of land has an important effect on. In about 1500 years, this piece of barren inland sea -- far from the real ocean on earth -- has been the communication China, India, Iran and the European trade routes (mainly silk) key area and road of the thought. Iran cultural center while located in the South West Asia, but its influence is very strong, so that sometimes it is difficult to clearly define the indigenous to Iran and Central Asia in the remote area civilization civilization. Diversity in Central Asia is thus affected by external influences multiple. For thousands of years, the area of continuous influx of foreign art and thought, striking central inherent mode and gradually fused with. Immigration and frequent military invasion of the impact, so that some ethnic and cultural or fusion, or replace, resulting in this vast area is always in a flow state. Generations of population flow contraction and expansion adds to define the areas of difficulty, because only on its surface unable to draw clear boundaries. So when the UNESCO nineteenth session of the General Assembly decided to publish a "history of civilizations of Central Asia", the first problem to be solved is to define the scope of the region. Later agreed at a meeting in 1978, UNESCO, research on Central Asia should be aimed at about Afghanistan, area northeast of Iran, Pakistan, northern India, western region, China several Mongolia and former Soviet Central Asian republic of civilization. The history of the "Central Asia" this name refers to the region, consistent and can identify the cultural and historical reality. UNESCO called on the experts, especially in central area of local scholars to participate in the work, and get a wide and generous response. The academic circles think that this project is an excellent opportunity to long-term shading Central Asia opened the curtain. However,However, this task is a huge project is no doubt. 1980 set up an ad hoc international scientific committee, planning and preparation for this work, and agreed to six volumes in East Asian history, from ancient times until today. The Commission initially is to decide what the broad canvas on which part should be the most prominent. Through the proper process, fair arrangement has been made, and elected the editor and author team. At present, "the progress of preparations for the history of civilizations of Central Asia" smoothly, all kinds of resources for research and archaeology is the best, in order to refine on work; chronicles refer to the center in the area beyond count. I sincerely wish this book volume third and subsequent volumes of the reader in the world benefit, and make them get satisfaction from. I would also like to thank the president, the International Scientific Committee Rapporteur and members of the committee, as well as the editor, author and other experts, they act with united strength, described in detail the Central Asia that extremely important and exciting history, make people have further understanding to the area. I'm sure the history books will prove to be a significant contribution to the study of national culture and to appreciate each other, and the culture is the common heritage of human heritage.
Multi volume "history of civilizations of Central Asia" is a comprehensive description of the major theme of civilizations of Central Asia's first attempt. The publication of this set of books are coincident with the UNESCO purpose, the organization of a famous international expert group for many years collaboration, has been carried out for basic research, trying to more public introduction in the Eurasian Continental heartland of this vast area of civilization. The six volume "history of civilizations of Central Asia" will reveal from Central Asia at the beginning of civilization to the era of cultural prosperity and decline. The area and only a few places, such as Samarkand, Bukhara or Shiva, the public are familiar with: now some famous experts (many people) through the book as we opened the curtain, shows a central Asian civilization more rich and colorful. From a large range, ancient and medieval history of the world is composed of people of all ethnic groups in the Eurasian hinterland of migration and the formation of range migration, extending from the Western Black Sea until China local border east.
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