European culture from "two and" culture,
"two and" culture refers to the Greek culture of Rome and from the Hebrew Christian culture, these two kinds of culture is the spiritual home of modern European culture. Among them, the Greek culture in Rome formed earlier, brilliant achievements, has the root meaning of European culture.
it is undeniable, by the Greeks and Romans as "other European native barbarian" also on the formation of the European culture has made the contribution can not be ignored, the Celtic, Germanic and Slavic people because of its wide distribution, influence and status is particularly prominent. Although they are in the culture were eventually include sub Christian world, but its ethnic continues today and constitute the main body of modern European peoples, the ethnic cultural heritage has been deeply rooted in European culture.
modern western individual freedom and democracy and Western Europe in the middle ages there is close connection. The legitimacy of freedom of the individual is evolved from aristocratic privilege the development of medieval and modern, western democracy model is from the medieval rank parliamentary politics, transformation and development. The feudal system "for the importance of whole history is no less than to the capitalist transformation".
Renaissance ended Christian culture dominated the medieval, ushered in a new era of modern European culture stride forward singing militant songs. As Engels said:
"this is a human has never experienced the greatest, progressive change, the need is a giant and a giant one one in thinking ability, passion and character, versatile and have a large stock of information in the era of giants." In this era of Europe, and even the whole world are very far-reaching effects. Now sweeping the world modernization tide the direct origin can be traced back to the.
Wang Li, Professor of history at Nankai University. In 1982 and 1986 has obtained his master's degree from the Nankai University Department of history of world history bachelor and direction of contemporary world history. In 1988 went to the America Harvard University training America diplomacy, then transferred to University of Montana's Mansfield Center for international relations and foreign professional, won the double master degree. After the turn of one of the six ancient university in the UK at the University of Aberdeen and received a doctor's degree in international relations. In 2004 to return to his alma mater Nankai University, before this, research in California has been engaged in postdoctoral American Keck Center for strategic and international studies, and teaching experience. Research direction: the Anglo American diplomatic theory, the EU's common foreign policy. The curriculum is: USA diplomatic history, European diplomatic history, modern European (Readings), British and American foreign literature, the EU's common foreign policy studies and the history of international relations.
the European culture and the source of
the first chapter classical culture on the European cultural foundation
second chapter European three big ancient ethnic contribution to European culture.
third chapter of Medieval Western European feudal system and modern European political civilization
fourth chapter of Christian culture on modern European culture influence
fifth chapter literature Renaissance and modern European culture in the formation of
sixth chapter, past and present: European culture in classical
> translation postscript
The copyright page: obviously, to the Romans, the Celtics are not only the barbarian and backward nation representative, is the conquest of a stumbling block on the road. To the Celtic people, although they are known to the brave, warrior, but faced with strict discipline and the advanced tactical organized the Rome army, mere brute courage Celtic Warrior gradually overwhelming. In 225 BC, the Celts in 特拉孟 (Telamon) campaign by Rome forces, marking the Celtic world began to decline, since then, the Celtics gradual expansion of stagnation, the Celtic world also step by step for the Rome Empire erosion. They settled in central hinterland, which is now in Austria, southern Germany and Hungary in the west, the first to feel the pressure from Rome, the Celtics were first assimilation, become Rome celtic. Soon, the Celtics during the heyday of the heart -- rich Gaul also doomed. Here not only by the Romans the Celtic Western pressure, but also by the southern German threat across the Rhine. Was the Celts occupied northern Italy territory, namely the Cisalpine Gaul, early in the Rome territory, and officially became the Rome the Alps in the south of the province of Gaul in 82 bc. Transalpine Gaul area surrounded by Celtic tribes also face the Romans conquered sooner or later. Grasp this opportunity and achievements of the great Roman is the province of Gaul governor Julius caesar. From BC 59 -- 49 years ago, Caesar to make use of contradictions intermediate between Germanic and Celtic contradiction as well as the Celtics, the Gaul Celtic tribes disintegrate, crush one by one. According to Plutarch records, Caesar's conquest of Gaul, leaving 1000000 Celtic people were killed, and who were captured more than this number. So far, Continental Celtic tribes almost completely conquered by the romans. Although the Gaul under the Romans also had several unrest, but most of the time, the Celtics still live a quiet and peaceful life, with the passage of time, they are Rome, lost their original features, become the so-called "Gao Luluo horse". In 55 BC, Caesar will look to the British Celts, his purpose was to warn the Celtics don't support those living in Gaul, was under Roman slavery Celtic tribe. Caesar's the "British" did not give Rome bring benefits, but in contrast to some extent reduced his prestige. Second years, namely, 54 BC, Caesar's second visit to britain. This time, he gained a foothold in the southeastern part of the British isles. Although the win, but did not make the Celtics yield. Soon after, he returned to gaul. In the next hundred years, Rome Empire did not pose a great threat to the british. True British Celts conquered by the Romans began in the year 43. At the time of the Rome Emperor Claudius (Claudius) led the 40000 army, took 3 years to finally conquerThe central and south of the British isles. In 60 -- 61 years, not be swallowed Esini tribal queen Budica (Boudicca) led the Celtic tribes against Roman rule intifada, the final was brutally suppressed. But since then, the Rome authorities to Celtic rule is no longer so tough, these areas gradually returned to normal production and livelihood. In 69 ad, southern British Rome (England) process basically completed. In 84 A.D. although Rome army beat Britain northern Caledonia people (ancient Scotland people), but have not really occupied here, "the Scottish Highlands fortress basically still British Celtic last free haven". Lies in the north of England (Hadrian the Great Wall was built in second Century during the first half) is completed, more become a watershed in Rome culture and Celt culture. South of the Great Wall, with the Rome ruling order consolidation, Celtic culture gradually decline, a little bit of assimilation in Rome culture; to the north of the Great Wall, the Romans never reached Ireland and never really occupied Scotland, the Celtics still continued his kingdom. The Roman occupation of Britain for nearly 400 years, until the year AD 407, because of the Empire of Rome be beset with troubles internally and externally, had to give up in the presence of British military.
"The European cultural origin of" was hosted by Professor Chen Zhiqiang of Ministry of education, the modern history of world base of key research project "European culture and influence of" sub topic "European cultural origin of" concluding results. It is a special study of European culture, formed around the modern factors and source expansion.
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