Africa black civilization

Date of publication:2008-4   Press: Fujian Education Publishing House   Author:Ai Zhouchang Shu Yunguo   Pages´╝Ü328  
Preface

Illustration: the introduction Africa black civilization, is sub Saharan Africa black nationalities in the summation created local each historical period of material civilization and spiritual civilization. Sub Saharan Africa, also known as the "black Africa", refers to the south of the central Africa. The residents are mainly black people. The famous scholar based? Zebo pointed out: "the vast majority of scholars agree that the sub Saharan nation in the genetic are basically the same...... There is only one quasi black group." It includes Sultan, Bantu, Khoisan, pygmies "minority group, and various, such as approximate with 'Ethiopia people' of the various ethnic groups". In the history of changes, there are many other ethnic minority in south of the Sahara, such as Arabs, Europeans, the people of Indonesia, and mixed with black. The process of books, civilization in black development, impact will also pay attention to the foreign population. Any study of a civilized world, no studies like black civilization that had Africa thought obstacle so big, experienced so long arguments. The first is not recognized. Long dominated the European academic point of view is Africa black no history, no philosophy, no civilization, only darkness and stagnation. Great with the German philosopher Hagel in the "philosophy of history" in one book, the Africa is divided into three parts, one is the "Africa home", which is sub Saharan Africa, known as black Africa; two is the "European Africa"; three is "Asia Africa", refers to the Nile River basin in particular, egypt. He thinks, Africa home "is not a history of the continent, which shows no change, do not show a development", Africa blacks didn't have the "ability" to philosophy, because "the Negro spiritual awareness is very weak, or rather does not exist".
Summary

Shu Yunguo, born in 1946. 1963 ~ 1968 and 1978 ~ 1981 studied at the History Department of East China Normal University undergraduate and "professional study of world modern history" students, and a master's degree. Long been engaged in teaching and research Africa history and current situation. Director, Africa research center of Shanghai Normal University history professor, doctoral tutor, part-time Chinese Africa History Research Association vice president, Shanghai World History Association vice president, Beijing palm Africa Research Center researcher. Monograph "study" of population growth and economic development Africa and "the failure of the Reform -- the end of the twentieth Century the Sahara to structural adjustment South Africa review" published articles, published more than 70.
Author brief introduction

In recent years, researches on world civilization has drawn more and more attention, and this is closely related to changes in the international situation and the world pattern after the cold war. With the rapid development of the acceleration of economic globalization and science and technology, economic communication, division of labor and cooperation, advanced transportation and communication, especially the modern information technology to produce and widely used, to overcome the past the long history of the geographic barriers in various countries, nationalities and regions separated, the world the connection part become an interdependent whole, and the whole world economic integration into a huge network. At present, although the world is still not peace, but peace and development have become the theme of world development. Competition between nations, mainly has not decided on the military strength, which depends on the overall national strength in the material and spiritual civilization in two aspects. For the development of a country, the nature and degree of civilization is an important factor for long-term effect. Therefore, many scholars begin to study attention to civilization and various civilization civilization and culture, factors that will play a more important role in the twenty-first Century world development process, to play a greater role. Study of world civilization is a very broad academic field of interdisciplinary research, involving many subjects. The world has a long history of civilization, in different poses and with different expressions, rich and colorful, which embodies the history and reality closely. Modern life of people is not a passive water, the continuation and development of ancient life history but; nor has gone forever dead, but still live in the contemporary reality. Human civilization is yesterday our present-day civilization root, only truly understand human yesterday, in order to better grasp the human today, and more consciously to prospect and create human tomorrow. From this point of view, the world civilization history, has not only theoretical significance, but also has a strong practical significance. We believe that the world civilization, the first requirement is that we must adhere to the Marx materialism, in the spirit of respecting the history, seek truth from facts, based on a large number of first-hand information, to investigate the rule and characteristics of each of the development of civilization, and make an objective and scientific evaluation. Civilization all over the world are specific human activities in different natural environment and the specific historical conditions of the creation, with the evolution and development of its own historical rule, a glorious period of their own and the great achievements, plays different roles in history at different times. Due to various reasons, some civilization history later decline, this is a Dialectical Laws phenomenon, does not mean that civilization itself inherently superior to the other branch. In the past for a long time in the history of research and cultural studies in western countries has been dominated by the so-called "Europe centric" point of view, the Western civilization saidCheng Tiansheng is superior, regard oneself head and shoulders above others, and with the Western values and standards to judge other civilization, even attempted to Western civilization to rule all the land. History has proved that, the self - centered cultural hegemony concept is extremely wrong. Before the rise in Western civilization, other adjacent areas such as Egypt and Mesopotamia had reached a high level of civilization and created many brilliant achievements, while western civilization was growing benefiting from other civilizations feeding. As the source of Western civilization and the ancient Greek civilization, for example, whether in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, architecture, sculpture and myth, religion and so on, the ancient Greeks from other civilizations absorbed abundant nutrition. Therefore, all the achievements of civilization in history is a valuable contribution to the whole of human civilization, should be fully recognized and respected. An important conclusion of our study is that the world civilization must confirm the diversity of various civilizations and cultural diversity. Throughout human history, civilization and culture since ancient times there are human beings, have commonness in satisfying people's basic needs and expression from the depths of human thoughts and feelings, but in the ways of expression but each has its particularity, different feature rich and mutual the. In fact, the generality and the particularity of civilization, diversity is not incompatible, diametrically opposed, but dialectical unity, the common lies in the diversity and particularity. There is a point of view, we are living in the age of globalization today, there will be the so-called "world civilization" a unified, everyone will become a "citizen of the world", the world culture will be towards the direction of convergence development, diversity will gradually disappear. This is a great misunderstanding, the actual situation on the contrary, economy to strengthen contacts and exchanges between the peoples of all countries and regions, which not only has no special and differential elimination of civilization and culture, but to make them gain new vitality and increasingly towards diversity direction. Diversity of civilizations and cultures should be fully respected, because the power on the world development is the coexistence of diversity. If the world civilizations original really consists of substantially with the Western civilization as the so-called "global civilization" dominant place, then the world is not to be too simple, insipid? Now different civilizations and the existence of cultural diversity has been approved by the international society and affirmation. In 1998 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, identified in 2001 as "year" dialogue between different civilizations, put forward to develop and strengthen dialogue and exchanges between different civilizations in the world, maintaining cultural diversity, mutual understanding between nations, the people of the region's, to remove the threat to peace, and work together to address global issues. In 2001, UNESCO Congress unanimously adopted the "Declaration on cultural diversity in the world", the cultural diversity to "the common heritage of mankind", think it is necessary for human, and points out that we should regard it as a life can continue to update the wealth, can guarantee a a process of human existence. We study the world civilization today, is to learn a new revelation and inspiration from the "common heritage of mankind", to contribute to the creation of today's civilization. The development of world civilization history tells us, need contacts and exchanges between different civilizations often, and the mutual absorption and fusion. Civilization does not retire, solitary freedom and self sealing stuff, it needs through dialogue with other civilizations, contacts and exchanges from the outside constantly obtain and nutritional supplement, made new vitality. Full of new life, can grow sturdily, development. A kind of civilization, no matter how brilliant, once closed, contacts and exchanges with other civilizations to world civilization, internal innovation and power will advance gradually dried up, become ossified and decline. Therefore, for the development of civilization itself, dialogue and communication is also essential. But in recent years has been to promote the so-called "clash of Civilizations", the different civilization that can't communicate with each other, opposite things, differences between the assertion civilization inevitably leads to the fierce confrontation and conflict, and the conflict of civilizations mentioned the post Cold War world development "mode" to look at the height of the. This theory is also contrary to civilization development historical fact. The whole process of the development of the world civilization, contradiction and collision between different civilizations though often occur, but not necessarily the cause of irreconcilable conflict, the one to destroy the other party. History did civilization was destroyed in the fierce conflict of civilizations in the case, but such conflicts are often not by differences among civilizations caused, but mainly because of driving behind the material interests. Generally speaking, different civilizations coexist in peace, mutual influence, mutual penetration and integration of each variable, is the development of world civilization habit and the mainstream. We should be more objective, comprehensive look at the relationship between different civilizations, and should not be one-sided exaggerated them between contradictory and conflict. Known for his research in the world civilization French historian Braudel think, civilization is not immutable and frozen, it have the initiative, but also the stability. One of the essential characteristics of civilization is a mutual communication and borrowing, which put things in their own output, meaning borrowing and absorption of other civilizations, such borrowing is selected, that is borrowed from the useful things for them to enrich their own. At the same time, civilization and "refused to borrow", which refused to own not apply things to keep the uniqueness and stability of their own. Braudel's view is more in line with the actual history. Generally speaking, the different cultures is developed in the benign interactive relationship of such. Facing the world a variety of different civilizations, how should treat? We think, China traditional philosophy advocates "harmony but not Sameness" thought, if it is the modern interpretation, can be used as processing between different civilizations mutual relations basic principle. The so-called "harmony but not Sameness", the premise of the first fully recognize and respect the existence of different things in the world, the difference between, affirmation and allows the distinction between things and the differences, then different things to mediation and proper arrangements for treatment, the conflict between them and the differences are reconciled, finally achieve the overall harmonious development. According to this principle to deal with the relationship between civilizations, we should make efforts to maintain and protectThe diversity of civilization, advocating the rights of peoples to independently choose their own development path suitable to its own national conditions, to maintain and develop their own civilization. People in different social systems, different levels of economic development, cultural background, religious beliefs and values, life style also each are not identical, must not force them to accept a particular civilization, take the unifying development model, so as to ensure the diversity of civilizations is not violated and healthily. At present, the threat of war still exist, more efforts should be made to promote dialogue and exchanges between different civilizations in based on peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding, mutual tolerance, equality, respect each other, learn from each other, seek common development, make the world more colorful. This is also conducive to strengthening friendly cooperation of people all over the world, the maintenance of world peace. These are some of the basic view of the world civilization of our. We study the world civilization, in the final analysis or for the construction Chinese socialist civilization service. We should not only know the motherland of Chinese civilization and glorious achievements, but also need to have knowledge about other civilizations in the world, so that we can compare, through dialogue and exchanges and absorbing all the positive achievements of world civilization, Chinese civilization more light; at the same time, according to the world civilization development situation, formulate a set can push our civilization construction, development strategy and to respond effectively to the challenges of foreign civilization. It is for this purpose, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences set up a comparative study of "the center of world civilization", and the "research group of" world civilization, organizations inside and outside the hospital, dozens of experts and scholars points of cooperative research, "world civilization system" this set of multi volume works hard for many years is the experts the fruit of labor. The pattern of world civilization, its forming process and no preset a unified standards and procedures, but in the long river of history, in the comprehensive effect of various elements, the natural form, so we should not, also cannot set a unified standard for segmentation. We passed long in-depth study, batted, in reference to the mode of civilization theory of international academia popular, such as Toynbee, Huntington and other scholars of the theory, but mainly in the specific problems with case analysis principle, from the actual situation of each civilization, religious, national, regional, in countries as diverse standard. Such as Latin American civilization, Western civilization is because regional civilization plate, Islamic civilization is condensed by religious, America, Canada is because countries formed their own civilization style.
Catalogue of books

Introduction the first part Africa black civilization form the first chapter Africa black civilization produces natural and historical background, sub Saharan Africa natural environment two, primitive black Africa second chapter in the Nile River upstream of the ancient civilization, civilization, a Nubian Kush civilization three, two Akesu, third chapter of civilization in West Africa early Iron Age civilization NOK culture, two, Sox culture three, early Iron Age sites in West Africa, West Africa early iron age distribution of the four characteristics of the culture of the fourth chapter of the Bantu migrations and Hei Renwen Ming, Bantu migrations, creating two independent Bantu civilization three, group of people moved north to the fifth chapter of Islam in East Africa and Swahili civilization communication one, the spread of Islam and the East African city of formation two, sixth chapter Swahili civilization of Islam in West Africa, spread and Hausa civilization, Islam in West Africa and West Africa country, spread two Hausa civilization second Africa black traditional civilization carrier seventh chapter the economics and politics, economy, the eighth chapter two political art, literature pursuit of the natural beauty Two, three, four in literature, music and dance, sculpture five human body decoration art ninth chapter religious and ethical custom, religion, ethics and customs of a two tenth chapter ideology and science and technology, two, three, Bantu philosophy aesthetics history four, traditional medicine five, building six, third series of science and technology in the future Africa black civilization eleventh chapter colonial black civilization to protest, colonial aggression, colonial rule and black civilization two Africa cultural nationalism, the rise and development of the twelfth chapter Africa black civilization characteristics and in the history of the world civilization status, Africa black civilization characteristics of two, in the ancient world civilization history, three Africa black civilization and the modern world civilization thirteenth chapter Africa modernization and the black traditional civilization, modern Africa a zigzag course two, bring forth the new through the old, step by step three, modern new black culture references that @##@ Revised Edition In the international academic circles "western center theory" and "the clash of Civilizations", Chinese scholars put forward their own theory of civilization, the world civilization is divided into 12 kinds of civilization system. Comparative study of world civilization China Academy of Social Sciences Center organized more than 40 famous scholars, which lasted more than 10 years, the compilation of "world civilization", volume 12. CCTV super large TV series "civilization Road, world civilization global tour" which was designed, and take it as the theoretical foundation. This book is one of the series of Africa black civilization (revised Illustrated Edition).
Chapter excerpt

"Black civilization Africa (revised Illustrated Edition)" published by Fujian Education Publishing house.
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