Chinese Incense Culture

Date of publication:2008-1   Press: Shandong Qilu press   Author:Fu Jingliang   Pages:315  
Preface

I was always the Mecca of traditional culture of the temple, the radiant brilliance change unpredictably, between the lines of a voice, seems to always have a attract and call. Grandfather Xi Zhi and uncle Mr. Li Gongyuzhang is one of my first teacher. Grandfather scholarship, emphasizes the Expo and then, when his favorite crash. The old man when nearly ninety years old, still sitting under the lamp every night reading, with a furnace fragrance, also used the small print notes. Uncle Yu Mr., books, empirical Kung Fu is deep, and a remarkable memory, whether "Kangxi dictionary" or "Ci yuan", ask a word, he can immediately tell where one page, no error. The two of them had repeatedly said, reading when a furnace is good, can help thinking, understanding, so profound. Grandfather's belongings, only break a pile of books four old flames residue remaining, which are part of a Book of incense, be reduced to fragments of reading notes, in a lot of books comments also repeatedly stressed the incense is cultivation health medicine. Many years ago, had discussed Chinese Incense Culture and a traditional culture famous scholars. He believes that the fragrant and non, thing, I think it is an important part of the traditional culture, the study of life theory and the concept of integrity of human and nature are of great significance, is an invisible vein Chinese culture. Discussion lasted all day, does not change the views of scholars, but increased my determination to further study of incense. Later, to meet the teacher Mr. Zhang Gongbailin, this is really into the traditional culture of the temple, a new awareness of the broad and profound traditional culture, for the sweet also have a deeper understanding. These years, such as the traditional culture of the Confucianism of the participant makes me more and more deeply realize, incense occupies a very important, very special status in Chinese culture. China incense, can be said to be the deep sea, the modern society and the knowledge of it is far not reached the required level. A few years ago, many friends helped, set up an inheritance, development of traditional culture for the purpose of development of incense, incense as the center of the entity to reproduce,, I also tested on traditional incense base, which is now the Shandong Huitong incense industry company. Thereafter, one is to research and production center Huitong as base, making a number of representative traditional incense, relates to Buddhism and Taoism, Confucianism, and from the incense, incense history, also have esoteric incense, incense, incense scholar who include mounds, and the incense, the princess of Shouyang the fragrance of plum blossom, huaruifuren Ya incense, incense, and the flowers and incense, flowers fragrant, sweet Asukami Masuchika, his spirit (Rajgir pagoda incense), virtual Ling Xiang (the scent), sleep Baoxiang, Karamiya Yukoka, chandana micro smoke incense, flowers, remove disease seven Pauline BiWen incense, Lily treasure sweet, open Hui Yishou incense pillow, sweet medicine waist, knee and so on. The first is the traditional records of empirical, and further explore its connotation, its know-how. Successfully incense in the first and spread, and then gradually spread. On the other hand, is a Hui to rely on, made some preliminary work for the development of culture of fragrance. In 2003 the establishment of the "China Incense Culture Network" (www.xiangwenhua.org), which is China's first on the incense culture of professional website, many articles have been all kinds of website, magazine. 2005 October held a "China Incense Culture Exhibition" the first, with pictures, real, interpretation and other forms show the splendid culture of fragrance. In 2005 December, CCTV China's first incense culture assist feature film "in the scientific research and production center Huitong crew the China traditional incense", introduces the process of traditional culture connotation of incense and incense. All of these about incense work, have been coming from all sides, tangible or intangible, support and help, everyone and everything, touching. With such help, make me from the ordinary people unbearable hardship came up, at the same time, also gave me dedicate to the rejuvenation of the nation's courage. Several years of experience also made me feel deeply, nowadays there are still many people like incense, many a person with breadth of vision has the strong interest to smell, to understand it, study it, promote it. At the same time, the fragrance is still exist many misunderstandings, prejudices and opinions, now the incense culture to be sworn. Hui and I can only do everything in one's power, research work despite progress was not worth mentioning, there are also many regrets and lack of. Only now is, I am vegetarian Pouilly, poor, will have all the energy into them, as will all contribute to sweet career, not a penny of their consumption personal pleasures. The incense culture through Chinese culture invisible veins, such as gardens, many historical hiden in the Wenhai, study also often involve some sensitive areas, have to be very careful of the risk, the dragon tail is difficult, but there is also a joy naris smoked, a shortcut of yue. Hope that this book like the incense culture network, attract more Dade patriots put into research, development of the incense culture in the business, make this thousands of years with the Chinese nation together cultural treasures for the revitalization of China cultural achievements. Fu Jingliang two 00 six years in May to @##@ on Xuan "China Incense Culture" is the first comprehensive system narrative Incense Culture monograph, fills up the blank of incense culture research. The 36 words, from several aspects of cultural history, sweet medicine, sweet incense making process, taste sweet, fragrant, Buddhism and literati and incense on the long history and profound culture China incense. The book not only covers the main areas in the incense culture, also from the archaeological artifacts, ancient writing, literature, medicine, animal and plant more than one angle, systematically the overall development of Chinese incense draw hook culture for thousands of years, more credible to the fragrant history traced to the Chinese culture in the prehistoric period, panorama to demonstrate the close relationship between culture and philosophy of incense, traditional Chinese medicine, etiquette custom, literature and art as a cultural category, also like the field a series of important basic problems made insightful paper, constructed the framework and ideas of traditional incense culture, called the sweet science a department of pioneering work, a contribution to the contemporary Ancient Chinese Literature Search research. The book has strict careful history research, there are abundant charm to incense poetry, as a sweet friend than for the book, or open Ancient Chinese Literature Search professionalsVision thinking.
Summary

The one one national culture is a long-term accumulation of its whole life, to explore the mysteries of a culture, also must start from the whole, start from history, from the phenomena of life to understand its pulse, and then in turn analyzes all sorts of phenomena, so as to grasp the essence of the culture. China as a five thousand years of cultural tradition of ancient civilization, although it had a brief humiliate the country and forfeit its sovereignty of shame, also has the penetration and impact of foreign culture, but a "Life Theory" and "the concept of integrity of human and nature" the main line of this Chinese culture plays a dominant role. With the changes of the times, the traditional culture has been showing a new look, but the external changes did not change its essence. The overall development of the Chinese culture is healthy, can make all the children of the Yellow Emperor proud achievements, her rely on is the five thousand years of Chinese culture is built the Great Wall, this monumental the Great Wall hold Chinese Qianqiu blood, future generations, continue to incense. In Chinese culture history, there is a closely linked with people's life culture is neglected, this is the "culture of fragrance". Many scholars put forward in twenty-first Century is the oriental culture of the times, is China cultural era, our country has also drawn up a grand blueprint for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. And the possibility of achieving this goal, the important point is that whether we can fully, accurately, seek truth from facts to grasp the traditional culture. The traditional culture of research scope, the number of people, is unprecedented. However, thousands of years of Chinese culture has always been with fragrant counterparts are rare. In the past a very long period of time, disappear from the scene of the incense in people's life, and later found mostly in worship and religion. So, many people mention incense will first think of worship, think of superstition. The researchers at, or that incense culture is not enough to become a valuable research subject. Perhaps it is because people ignored it, neglect it, let it take its course, back and go, just make it increasingly superstitious and spread in the world. In fact, the history of the incense is not so. So, we have the duty to face it, study it, guide it, also its original appearance, and thus improving the understanding of history and traditional culture. Two incense culture is an ancient and new topic. Chinese incense, a long history of Chinese civilization and, as far as homologous. In gilt silver bamboo incense burner 2000 years ago before Wu Di, the Warring States period birds Qing copper pot hill furnace. Far can be traced to 3000 years ago, the Shang Dynasty "holding a wood burning" cult, again far has Tao Xunlu the Longshan culture and the Liangzhu Culture 4000 years ago, and the altar of prehistoric sites and earlier 6000 years ago Chengtoushan relics of Liao sacrifice. Incense, through thousands of years of wind and rain accompanied the rise and fall of the Chinese nation. It invited the day set for the Holy Spirit, the first worship, is the embodiment of days of fear respect people, and courtesy expression; is good temperament, enlightenment was wonderful thing, and is cured disease provide a dirty, soothe the nerves are the soul of medicine. The emperor, men of literature and writing, monk Dade and competing all incense, AI Xiang, Xi Xiang, two thousand years of China upper society has always been to incense as partners, has added to the incense praise. Warm warm stove, smoke, fog, I do not know how much inspiration triggered, add how much enthusiasm, interest rates much anger, took many blessings, spawned many rare gifts and bold strategy, calligraphy articles...... It inspires excellence: wisdom, so men and women with high ideals and China, inoculation on philosophy and humanistic spirit is an important catalytic and promote. It is the Chinese culture invisible veins, invisible force. Incense, although micro and expensive, but the traditional culture and the pulse of goods. Many departments of incense and traditional culture are closely related. In many areas of ancient physicians, scholars, monks, high road and other scholars have an important contribution to the development of incense. Wide range of sweet medicine (aromatic herbs, approximate the "spice"), incense, incense, used in many aspects such as incense. Such as Ge Hong, Fan Ye, Tao Hongjing, Sun Simiao, Li Shizhen etc.. The earliest known the sweet science book is written by Fan Ye "and" incense. Since about the late Eastern Han Dynasty began, incense has become a common theme in all kinds of books, including medical books, books, historical geography (plant), literature (poetry, novels, books, etc.) Buddhism Classics, such as "foreign body" (Yang Fu), "notes Xijing", "Bao Pu sub", "natural history", "zhouhoubeijifang", "Mingyi bielu", "Qi Min Yao Shu", "Tong Dian", "Qian Jin Fang", "dream", "Compendium of Materia Medica" etc many famous books there are on the sweet or sweet medicine content. Three the ancient literature of the pre Qin with fragrant records of most of the sacrifice, many people also believe that the origin Chinese incense in worship. In fact, the ancient incense has two parallel clues: with fragrant incense and worship, and can be traced back to ancient and primitive. Early ceremonial incense burning "Xiangru, mainly manifests for the burnt burning wood, burnt offerings (and for wine, such as offering method for grain). Such as Oracle noteLoad the Shang period "hand of burning wood" "Purple (CHAI)" offerings, "the book of songs Shengmin" China Week human ancestors used in worship in the expiration date ("Xiao"), "Shang Shu Shun Dian" account Shun Taishan Fengshan, for a holocaust. From the archaeological point of view, the burnt burned items "Liao sacrifice" long appeared, visible from 6000 years ago Hunan Chengtoushan site and Shanghai Songze altar. Since 4000 ~ 5000 years, has been widely used in Liao sacrifice. (the remains of burnt Liao sacrifice is not easy to distinguish specific items, referred to as the "Liao sacrifice". ) life with fragrant history also long, 4000 ~ 5000 years ago has emerged as a living supplies Tao Xunlu. Such as the Liao River Basin found pottery 薰炉 furnace in 5000 before the cover (Hongshan Culture), the Yellow River Basin discovered more than 4000 years ago Mongolia bag shaped pottery (薰炉 Longshan Culture), the Yangtze River basin also discovered more than 4000 years ago the bamboo shaped pottery (薰炉 Liangzhu culture). The style and the later Kaoru furnace consistent (different from the sacrificial 鼎彝 ritual), and beautiful appearance, is the late Neolithic period "luxury". Can say, in the early stage of Chinese civilization, with incense and sacrifice life with incense will have appeared, but also from a unique perspective reflects the glory of early civilization. The pre Qin period, incense atmosphere (life with fragrant) is in a certain range spread (widespread wearing sachet, otherwise wear vanilla, fragrant bath soup usage). In the Warring States period has been well made Kaoru furnace "Boshan furnace", the copper furnace, exquisite carving of the early porcelain furnace, also have exquisite. Enter after the Western Han Dynasty, with development of incense and leap, since all the way to grow, lasted for two thousand years. Emperor Wu of Han period (about 120 years ago), incense and incense burner has the nobles in the north and south around the popular; to the early Eastern Han Dynasty, the kind of sweet medicine has been quite rich, such as aloes, Aristolochia debilis, storax, clove and so on; Wei and Jin Dynasties, with fragrant atmosphere extended to literati stratum; when the Northern Song Dynasty is "alley fragrance", throughout all aspects of social life, in Yuan Ming and Qing dynasties have been fully maintained and steady development. Can say, China incense culture originated from the ancient, germination in the pre Qin period, into the early in the Qin and Han Dynasties, grew up in the Six Dynasties, complete in Sui and Tang Dynasties, prosperous in the song and Yuan Dynasties, abundantly in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The ancient incense with aromatic herbs as raw material, exquisite formula, has many health functions. Both for worship, worship heaven and earth, sun and moon, the ancestors, the gods; also used in daily life, and the function is very wide, including indoor fumigation, fumigation, and lavender is dirty to clean, health disease treatment etc.. Living room, bedroom, study, banquets, celebrations and toward the hall, office and other government sites, teahouses and wineshops public standing furnace incense. In fact, as early as in the Tang and Song Dynasties, incense has become an important element of ancient society, is closely related to daily life. Reading office incense, incense Zen Tao, poems, playing tea fragrance, right up the house, the mansion Ya Shengtang incense, incense wedding banquet will be friends birthday, incense, incense Jinshi examination...... The literati, incense is in life there will be things, many people not only incense incense, but also wide Luo Xiang fragrance, hand incense, incense and research from the aspects of. For example, Su Xun is the poem wrote: "ramming musk incense sieve Tan into normed module, and chicken run branch Wei Lu su. A spit smoke fine, semi cone burning jade chopsticks coarse....... The porch window a few seats 随宜 with, not to hold high the magpie tail furnace." ("sweet") this poem is about making the earlier record of joss stick. Su Shi had specifically for making a "Yin Xiang" (to mix powder box fan "seal shaped pattern cursive") to Su Zhe as birthday present, and poetry "by the birthday, the sandalwood a Buddism godness Guanyin like and new Yinxiang, silver seal disc for life", also written poems incense. Huang Tingjian often homemade incense, had also to others the gift on the topic of "Jiangnan account incense" poem to Su Shi: "Shen Bao Lian Neptunea cumingi water, smoke near the south of the Yangtze river." Su Shi and the "four word chant, incense, incense filled with Southeast; not Wen Si and, and make the naris first." Huang Tingjian: Yes, there are "proud of a stick of smoke dust caught, Qu nine." Life has always been the main force to promote the fragrant incense culture development, from the Western Han Dynasty to the song of the two leap peak, the Ming and Qing Dynasties wide line, all is such. The popularity of Han incense, sweet medicine category increased, lavender smoked incense, incense, the room was feasts are living with fragrant category. Can say, incense in the Western Han Dynasty the rise time is regarded as a kind of enjoyment of life, a method of removing foul health. In the "alley fragrance" of the Song Dynasty, incense is also a strong secular color, its extreme representative is the Southern Song Dynasty Hangzhou restaurants are also preparing incense "sweet woman" for guests at any time to incense. Incense burner (and aloes, storax and other aromatic herbs) use is also very likely comes from life (including medical) with fragrant. The earlier the incense burner can be traced back to the Western Han Dynasty and incense burner in the Warring States period, its predecessor is not Shang sacrificial 鼎彝 ritual, but from 4000 to 5000 as the necessities of Tao Xunlu, along with fragrant clues life development, namely "the late Neolithic period Tao Xunlu (use incense) smoked furnace before Qin Dynasty and the Western Han Dynasty (life with fragrant incense burner) after a Jin (used in incense and incense for sacrifice life)". Around 120 BC, incense in the Western Han Dynasty Royal class has been popular, (at least) one hundred years later, only the Han and Jin Taoism Buddhism rise and pioneered the use of incense, and the incense belongs to life (including Boshan furnace) and sweet medicine was gradually extended to the field of sacrifice. (the ceremonial incense and Qin similar, mainly for fuel, firewood and other offerings, expiration date, life with incense use incense burner and aloes, storax and other aromatic herbs. After Wei and Jin Dynasty, sacrificial incense are also starting to use the incense burner and aloes, sweet medicine. ) four human fondness of aroma, is the inherent nature, like a butterfly love flowers, trees to the sun. The ancients recognized early, health-care, must from "sex", "life" two aspects to Hopewell, life, achieve the health cultivation purposes. While the aroma is not only pleasant fragrance, can remove dirty to clean, and physical and emotional health, harmony, self-cultivation. Can say, "aroma character" is the core concept Chinese Incense Culture and an important feature, and the Confucian "self-cultivation" theory are closely related. Such as "Xunzi" said: "Li on livestock rice Liang, five flavor liquor, so the mouth; Jiao LAN Fen Joseph, so keep the nose also;...... The ceremony who raise." Life had a long life, life was consistent with health is a Chinese ancient wisdomThe crystallization of wisdom. Chinese incense culture is the cultivation of culture, but also health culture, the idea of self-cultivation, and see, to "nature" as the main theme of the Chinese culture, is an indispensable part, and the formation of incense culture of a kind of inevitable phenomenon and prosperity but also China culture in the development of. "All aspects of aroma character" concept throughout the incense culture. With incense, not only with its aromatic, with its health cultivation of reactive power, thus greatly expand the application of incense in the daily life, and further guide the life with incense, the incense, poetic, and then to enjoy the fragrance from the aroma of Zen and the spirit with. On the incense, is follow the testimonies, pay attention to drug selection, manufacture, formulation, and traditional Chinese medicine, Taoist health science and alchemy, Buddha medicine have a close relationship, and very early sweet as health cultivation of "medicine", formed a "sweet medicine homologous' '. The traditional. Such as Fan Ye "and" cloud: "sweet female musk deer the bogey, too much will harm. Heavy and easy, Ying Jin without injury. Zero Huo virtual dryness, Zhan Tang sticky....... Jujube paste with a blunt, fry in shallow, not only conducive to 馨烈, but when MI by especially disease also." ("book of Song Dynasty, Fan Ye biography" (words), aloes, Musk Fragrance drug characteristics, by the sweet medicine alluding to the people. ) so, the incense is the connotation is rich wonderful thing. It is an aromatic, with pepper LAN Fen lettuce, Shen Tan brain musk deer. It is aesthetic, very elegant, refined, artistic conception, "my sweet", "sweet a quiet", "sweet quiet elegant, fragrant warm, fragrant noble", the incense, incense, incense, incense and chant with colorful, interesting. It is "the heart", can the maintenance of body and mind, open the soul; in with incense, taste is also important spiritual insight, not rigidly adhere to the aroma and flavor, so there are Du Fu's "heart heard Miaoxiang", Su Shi's "naris to join", Huang Tingjian's "hidden a few sweet Zhu, Lingtai Zhan space tomorrow". It cut 'in mind, also close to life, close to the common people. Although for your fantasy, but not superior, minority proprietary. Can say, China incense culture would rise early, long-term prosperity, wide line in "people", have greatly benefited from the "aroma character" concept. The rise in the Western Han Dynasty incense is life with incense, but also not only be regarded as a kind of enjoyment of life, its development speed, large area, and the "nature" theory at the time of the popular has the very big relations. "Gou Zi centered theory" words "in such as God, such as the emperor" emperor to vanilla health, "the side loading army Zhi to raise the nose", as one of the Royal cover notes of incense. A nose how to health? "Shennong Bencao Jing Shu" cloud: "every evil, will be from the mouth and nose and. Snout to Yang Ming Qiao, Yang Mingxu easily into one. Fragrance Qing Yang Qi of spleen and stomach damp removing, Ann." It is the concept of shaping, aroma health promoting the life with incense, incense and promoting the use of incense medicine, cast the cornerstone China incense culture, also endued with the lasting vitality and predicts its future. Five the ancients also left a large number of chanting incense or involving incense poetry, also many famous works, it works in Boshan often warm, heart incense is not bad, the Millennium comes, it is spectacular portrayal China Incense Culture: "Shangshu": to rule the fragrance, the feeling in the mind; proso millet not Hing, Merit is sweet. "The book of songs. People: "Yin Sheng in the beans, beans on the board to. The fragrance was up, God Ju xin. "Lisao": Hu Jiang from the monarch Zhi Xi, Ren Qiu Lan thought peja. Redords of the Grand History of China. "Book of Rites: rice Liang five taste, so the mouth; Jiao LAN Fen lettuce, so keep the nose also. "Han Gong Shengchuan": smoked with sweet self burning, cream to the oneself. Hansen: fragrant to reside, air command our grass residue. Xu Shu: not in the optical instrument, is she not listed; not Shi Wei Zhang, the aromatic not hair. Cao Zhi: Royal towel Xiang Jun pong in powder, Horner bridge, chicken tongue five flavours miscellaneous flavor. Fu Xuan: incense burning day break, ring precipitation days from the deep. Fan Ye: musk deer the bogey, too much will harm; heavy and easy, Ying Jin without injury. Xie Huilian: burn incense burner, Bing the candle, Gui Xi Yang Qing with wine. Jiang Yan: with Depe morning light, eutectic furnace Xi xiang. Xiao Tong: Cuan pine fire, burning blue musk aromatic; Yingying in Yao, ADA yang. Wang Wei: towards the strike cigarettes articles full sleeve, PS bead jade in the brush. Du Fu: Thunder and rain to send thousands of peaks, flowers and incense gas want 100. Li Bai: the point light furnace smoke, Su caohan raw jade. Bai Juyi: Yin idle four lines of verse, static to an incense burner. Li Shangyin must human hearts blossom in spring, like all other flowers? And inch by inch my heart burns into ashes grey. Li Qu: the cold night not to sleep too hard, cold furnace cigarettes from kingston. Li Yu: candle Xiang Ming dark painted floor deep, full 鬓清 cream can Xue, think to ban. Yan Shu: Cui Ye Cangying, bead curtain Yan, incense static transfer by hairspring. Ou Yangxiu: Shen musk deer don't burn the Golden Duck cold, cage and pear. Zeng Gong: heavy smoke on the thin yellow volume, set in the head of cigarettes. Yan Jidao: Royal yarn new skirt, aloes slow smoked. Su Shi: gold furnace yet warm musk coal residue, Xi Xiang more Baochai turned. Xin Qiji: remember this night with burning incense, people in the corridors, in the cloister. Li Qingzhao: misty cloud sorrow ever day, Rui brain Pin Gold beast. Lu You: a leaf of red heart was worthy, court of empty month night burning incense. Jiang Jie: when home wash guest robe? Silver words Zheng tune, the word heart burning incense. Ma Zhiyuan: take the full order, full of wine pot; the wind curtain, full of incense furnace. Wen Zhengming: silverleaf twinkling night fire, blue smoke immobile water clear. Xu Wei: lunch sit incense Wang Lian, cigarette Miao reward was present. Nalanxingde: breeze blow to flask plum, the word heart has become a gray. Cao Xueqin: Coke head towards also evening, extremely anxious complex mid day. Xi Peilan: the problem with Yan catalyst volume, Hongxiutianxiang with reading. Six since the late Qing Dynasty, China society was hitherto unknown impact, incense culture has entered a more difficult period. Continued turbulence greatly influences the spice trade, incense making and Chinese incense interest. The literati had long-term support, promote the incense culture development has experienced great changes in the way of life and values, there is no longer a daily habit of incense. Chemical synthesis of spices and industrial technology also crowding, changed Chinese incense to a great extent, its material, formula and quality will decrease. Most of the incense is no longer in use of natural spices (ancient "spice"), is only a "hybrid" synthetic spices and combustible materials, not only health, but may be harmful to the body and mind. Today, has been rarely seen to follow the ancient tradition of incense. Modern people are mostly incense, incense as a form of incense, incense, just look, not taste, enjoy the sweet. So, long into the den piano room fragrant also graduallyFar away, lost the connotation of beautifying life, edify disposition, mainly as a ritual ceremony preserved in the temple altar. People gradually no longer know the ancient incense was a wonderful thing, don't know the ancient Chinese was like sweet, don't know why the ancients would like incense. Today's weather is the incense culture people worry, encouragingly, people walk through the twentieth Century amidst the winds of change are beginning to re-examine the traditional culture to a more clear eyes of the merits and demerits of the essence, brilliant with love and cherish more wise, more numerous incense, incense known music people, people interested in traditional cultural common concerned about its development. Through thousands of years of river Xiang culture, also will be able to cross the twists and turns, coruscate vigor. The dust, the moon is bright; Xijinqianhua, longer tianxiang. Seven Oracle's "sweet", such as "containers Sheng millet", refers to the grains of incense. Seal script became from millet from Gan, Lishu and omit writing incense. Such as "poetry": "Shengmin Yin Sheng in the beans, beans on the board to. The fragrance was up, God Ju xin." Since the Eastern Han Dynasty, is also used to refer to sweet medicine (SPICE), such as storax, caryophyllus; or sweet medicine production of incense, incense, such as incense, incense, incense seal. For the "incense", can have such a description: China Incense Culture of the Chinese nation in the long course of history, the incense (incense, perfume products) and making use of forms, embodying the national spirit temperament, national traditions, aesthetic ideas, thinking mode and unique world outlook a series of goods, technology, methods, system and concepts, habits. Fragrant cultural infiltration in various aspects, the research on it from the multi pronged approach, at least should involve: history and current situation of the incense culture; processing types, characteristics, sweet medicine; spices, produce, use, identification of species; the species, production of incense, fragrant characteristics; the story (allusions); relates to the fragrant incense in works of literature and art; cultural exchanges; the relationship between culture and other cultural category of incense (such as literature and art, religion, medical health) etc.. The study of micro, borrow this book valuable. If can make readers understand the flavor more, more interested, blessing is my. This book is dedicated to the support and help of Qilu press and parties. Chen Qingguang "the incense of", "general" Chen Qinghong Ming Xuande furnace, Liu Liangyou "incense" and other colleagues learn to code many literary theory provides a valuable reference and inspiration, and there is little Mr. Lanting Pavilion revised part of the article. Xinxiang floating thousands of miles, with sincere thanks! A stick of incense smoke Piaomiao one day old, group. This book pays tribute to the wisdom of sages, for our nation. Fu Jingliang two O0 six years in May to @##@ on Xuan 1 cigarettes was l: germination in a lunar January Qin Dynasty about 4100 years ago in the auspicious day, Yao Ming Temple held a grand ceremony. Shun Yao Wang accepted the throne, check the Rui is, know the Regent almost heaven, for special ceremonies, Sue Yu Tiandi. Burnt wood rising smoke, went up to heaven, and thus "naked" sacrifice to sun, wind and thunder method, four; solemnly looking far and near the mountains and rivers, in order to "look" offering sacrifice to the mountains by the line; and worship other gods. Since then, Shun collected five kinds of jade around the chief power symbol. And choose a lucky day, accept Party leader to appear before and presented five kind of jade carving. In February, Sun visited the East, to Taishan, 木行 offering burnt wood burning, and successively held a memorial ceremony for the mountains. This is the "Shang Shu Shun Dian" to shun became a record: "lunar January by day, finally the progenitor. In an ancient astronomical instrument, Qi Qi zheng. Widespread category in God, god six, look at the mountains and rivers, times and god. Series five end. Which month is the day, Jin Yue 群牧 group after four, Bany. In February, the East patrol, as Dai, Chai, Wang rank in the mountains." In ancient times, the Chinese nation's first people in worship in the burnt wood smoke to rise, offering sacrifices to heaven and earth, it was later used for worship incense herald. Many parts of traditional culture are all can be traced back to pre Qin, incense is more ancient history can be traced back to the Shang Dynasty, as well as distant first summer period, the late Neolithic age. Before 6000 years ago, it has been burning wood and other offering sacrifices to heaven and earth gods method. 3000 years ago the Shang Oracle has a "Purple (CHAI)", "holding the wood burning cult", can use incense for sacrifice image annotation. And China incense and a parallel clues -- life with incense, it can trace back to ancient times ancient. As early as four years ago, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River have emerged as the daily life of Tao Xunlu. To the spring and autumn and the Warring States, sacrifice embodies the expiration date, burning incense burnt wood, firewood burnt offering and for the sweet wine, for the grain offering method. In life with a sweet, aromatic plants rich category has been used for incense, incense, provide a dirty, and insects, medical health and many other fields, and the smoke of burning, wear, fumigation bath, drink such as multiple usages. Wear perfume, make-up of vanilla, fragrant bath soup is very common, incense atmosphere (life with fragrant) is in a certain range of popularity, and the emergence of making Kaoru furnace well. In addition, the pre Qin Confucian "self-cultivation" theory as the representative of the "aroma character" concept has been formed, laid an important foundation for the later development of incense culture, has created a very favorable conditions for the Western Han Dynasty life with fragrant leap. The ancient cigarettes from the archaeological point of view, in 6000 before the religious activities have been burning firewood burnt offerings and Practice (often referred to as the "Liao sacrifice"). Known as the "Chinese first ancient city" Hunan Lixian Chengtoushan large altar, Shanghai Qingpu Songze site altars are found in Liao sacrifice remains. (the remains of burnt Liao sacrifice is not easy to distinguish specific items, purple offerings, Liao sacrifice often referred to as "Liao sacrifice". The burning of goods generally have two categories: one category is easy combustion plants, such as wood, grass, such as food, another kind is the pottery, stone, animal sacrifice body need to borrow 木之 wood fire Liao items. Because the plant remains for the residual ash, is not easy to identify, Liao sacrifice for plant species is to be tested, should be selected some aromatic smell with good quality, trees, shrubs and herbs). Since 6000 ~ 5000 years (about the late Yangshao period in the altar), larger, Liao sacrifice remains more visible in western Liaoning, Dongshan mouth and Niuheliang Hongshan Culture late sites. From Dongshan mouth to Niuheliang of dozens of kilometers within the duration distribution has a large stone altar, goddess temple, Jack Shi ZhongqunSuch large-scale religious sites, located in the ridge on the Dongshanzui altar found a large red soil, tens of centimeters of soil animal, burned bone Liao sacrifice remains. The altar of bilateral symmetry, the North South circle, to the later "heaven on the Circular Mound Altar in the south, offering to square butte in North" ritual; Tan, temple, tomb "three in one" and "heaven and Earth altar, the layout of the temple, Mausoleum" layout similarity; structure and later graves imperial mausoleum similar; the dragon jade soil is China's earliest implements one of the dragon. The site reveal amazing prehistoric culture, showing the ancient origins of Chinese civilization. Can be seen, the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Liao sacrifice is to inherit the ancient ritual concept. Since 5000 ~ 4000 years (about generalized Longshan period), the use of Liao sacrifice has been universal. Shanxi Taosi sacrifice found large "altar" shaped building, is likely to have been used for astronomical observation and Liao Chai Heaven (the research in recent years shows that, this site is probably the Yao City of Pingyang). Taihu basin Liangzhu Cultural sites also have a large number of Liao sacrifice remains our knowledge, have strong Liao sacrifice atmosphere in the region. Liangzhu culture is mainly distributed in Taihu and Hangjiahu area, including Zhejiang Yuhang Mo Jiao Shan, anti hill, Dayaoshan, Changzhou, Jiangsu, Shanghai Qingpu Fuquan mountain temple pier, Jiangsu, Zhang Lingshan, Kunshan Wuxian caoxieshan Chuodun, Shao Qingshan and so on many sites, including dozens of large altar and similar "Pyramid" noble cemetery (artificial piling build high, intermediate cemetery), the Liao sacrifice remains widely distributed. Since 4000 ~ 3000 (Xia and Shang Dynasties), a vast area of Liao sacrifice throughout North and south, coastal and inland, especially seen in the Shang Dynasty, Henan Yanshi mall, Zhengzhou mall, Zhengzhou Xiaoshuangqiao, Sichuan Guanghan Sanxingdui is the site of the Shang dynasty. The first incense burner: smoked furnace before 5000 from our intuition, Kaoru furnace does not seem to belong to a distant "Neolithic Age", "ancient period", but amazingly, archaeological discovery in recent years indicate that, four thousand or five thousand years ago, our ancestors have started to use the "luxury" products. In the late period of Hongshan culture site Niuheliang have unearthed a zigzag pattern grey pottery 薰炉 furnace cover (5000 years ago). Shandong Weifang Yao Guan Zhuang Longshan culture site has been unearthed in a Mongolia shaped pottery 薰炉 (4000 years ago), with fine sand grey pottery, 17 cm high, abdominal diameter 14 centimeters, the top open hole, the holes in the body shapes (round, oval, half moon etc.). Shanghai Qingpu Fukuizumi Yamaranagisa cultural sites have unearthed a bamboo shaped ash Tao Xunlu (4000 years ago), 11 cm high, 9.9 cm diameter (slightly smaller than the bottom diameter), a hat shaped, inclined straight ventral, short foot, abdominal wall 6 circle bamboo shaped convex ribs, a furnace cover catch hand around 18 the holes (3 holes as a group, a total of 6 groups). These pieces of smoked furnace "decentralized" in the Liaohe River Basin, the Yellow River basin and the Yangtze River Basin, its style and later Kaoru furnace consistent (different from the sacrificial 鼎彝 ritual), and beautiful appearance, is the late Neolithic period "luxury", also from a unique angle of refraction of early Chinese civilization. (lower Niuheliang site since 5000, Yao Guan Zhuang site of Longshan culture and Fukuizumi Yamaranagisa culture site is close to the lower limit of time, but before 4000.) Business: the wood offering, Liao sacrifice, fragrant wine of inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells has been "Purple (CHAI)", "Liao", "sweet" and other words. "Purple (CHAI)" word, such as "on the altar with burning wood", refers to "the hand of burning wood" cult ", as evidenced by an image annotation sacrifice incense. "Liao" word, such as "burning wood", "burning wood cult", has a separate "Liao", also have "their prison", "Liao Niu" burnt offerings for other (animal). ("Shuowen": "Liao, purple heaven also." "Purple, firewood Liao heaven also.") Dedication of grain is also an ancient offerings to gods, "incense" word is derived from corn fragrance. Oracle in the "sweet", such as "a container Sheng millet" (small dots, millet and edges represent millet, finger millet) good smell. Seal script became from millet from Gan, "millet" table grain, "Gan" table sweet. ("Shuowen": "sweet, aromatic, from millet from GaN.") The official script and omit writing "incense". Such as "book of Junchen": "to rule the fragrance, the feeling in the gods. Proso millet not hing, Merit is sweet." The highest virtue of incense, aroma non proso millet comparable. (according to the preliminary investigation the author) about since the Eastern Han Dynasty, "Xiang" is also used to refer to a sweet medicine (SPICE), such as storax, clove etc.. Since the Wei and Jin Dynasties, "Xiang" is also used to mean "sweet medicine production of incense", such as incense, incense, and the sweet incense, incense, and printing etc.. The Shang Dynasty had a rich aroma of expensive wine, known as "he", used to worship, but also used as gifts or for guests to enjoy. Is generally believed that this wine is made from radix curcumae, he black millet etc.. Black millet is a precious grain at the time, turmeric is an aromatic herb (now the plants of Curcuma Genus, also known as turmeric grass, not the tulip), the host Kuai Genhuang Akayoshi Ka, stem, leaf, flower is fragrant, is a commonly used medicinal herbs. (another view of ancient wine he without turmeric, and leaves flowers, or a combination of Radix Curcumae and leaves flowers.) He is one of the most important wine in Shang and Zhou dynasties offerings (gift), a high frequency of use. The Western Zhou Dynasty and full-time "Yu" and "he" responsible for things such as he, "Zhou Chun Guan" contains: "Yu palm bare. Whoever sacrifices, guests of the bare, and Yu He to Yi and chen." "He palm is cabinet he and decorated." (bare: Guan, kinds of irrigation or offer. Yi: wine vessels. Cabinet: Ju, black millet). Western Zhou and spring and Autumn: sacrifice firewood, burning Xiao cult Western Zhou and spring and autumn with incense (from previous generation) mainly manifests for the burnt wood burning wood, fire, burnt offerings and expiration date for sweet wine (wine, grain offerings he) method. Liao Chai 升烟 cult often "firewood" offering, subdivision is a "naked (Yin) worship", "solid wood", "槱 (you) Liao", cover for product burnt burned wood, wood and then set in jade, silk, sacrifice and other objects, burnt burned items are different, but the be burnt Liao L smoke. "Yili, Jin Li": "worship, firewood. Offering mountain hills, L. Ji Chuan, sink. Festival, tomb." (bury: Yi, buried grain offering.) "Zhou" bulk ":" things to Jili state ghost, God, gods, to 禋 worship worship Wu day God, to worship the sun and the moon and the stars in the wood, 槱 Liao sacrifice, our life inDivision, wind, Rainmaker, blood sacrifice, sacrifice to the five, Wu Yue, offering to sunk forests kawasawa, to 疈 Gu offering four hundred." (buried: jade, grain into soil to offering mountain god god. Shen: jade, and sank into the water body by offering water. Blood: the blood and body to the ground. 疈 Gu: plgu, cut, cut net and body). Zheng Xuan's note: "禋 words smoke, Zhou is stinky, stinky smell or smoke....... The burnt Liao l smoke, so called yang". Kong Yingda: "God, sparse fragrant offering." (of God worship, real wood, 槱 Liao differences, different versions, some people think God worship is the jade, silk, whole animal, real wood with silk, after day solution and body, 槱 Liao only festival solution and body.) "The book of songs Weiqing" tribute to the king of heaven worship a God code: "Yu Wen Wang Weiqing, code. Zhao cheng. As with a lucky week, dimension." This is the Duke of Zhou Wen Wang worship songs, it is: a King Wen create laws, only the clarity and brilliance of politics, from creating God worship heaven code system to the achievements of today, is the auspicious omen. Ji hee: bright. Zhao: start. Burning "Xiao" is also an important cult. ("Xiao" means "Xiangru, aroma obvious Artemisia, cover now refers to the Artemisia annua (called Artemisia annua L.) plants of the genus Artemisia, Yin Chenhao et al.) Often contaminated with oil burning Xiao (and proso millet and other grains), and depression 鬯之 wine, think Xiao and proso millet incense belongs to the "Yang", "Yin Yu 鬯之 incense". Such as "the book of rites rural characteristics": "Zhou is smelly, smelly irrigation with he, Yu 合鬯, ozone to 渊泉. Filled with humanity, with jade gas. Both irrigation, then welcome it, also caused by yin. Xiao Heshu millet, smelly yang to wall house, not only drink, then Xiao He Shan Xiang mite. All these offerings, shen." (焫: Ruo, incineration. Jiao: Jiao Festival, worship. Especially, sacrifice: animal body. Stinky: smell; GUI: round (or the sword head shaped) below the jade. Zhang: shaped like a half a GUI jade. Container filled with humanity he stalked, jade jade Qi). "The book of songs Shengmin" also recorded: "burning" Xiangru taking Xiao, offering fat, take to 軷 di. Load burnt load strongly, with Xing Si years old." Artemisia apiacea Hance is often regarded as a good thing, such as "the book of songs" to "Liao Xiao Xiao" than the gentleman: "Pi Xaus, the dew billow. He has a light, for the dragon. Their virtue is without taint of error; may long life and an endless name be his. "Blue", "Bai (song)" and other aromatic plants are also very popular, in the life and sacrifice have used. ("blue" refers to bluegrass, this composite Perrin, Zeeland, Hua Zelan, sometimes also refers to the orchid orchid.) In the Chu area, held important sacrifice often bathe orchid decoction, and to pave the way for bluegrass sacrifice, our grass parcel (some say the smoked meat), Jin Xian GUI wine and pepper wine. Such as "Nine Songs": "bath Tang Xi Mufang, Hua Cai Yi Xi Ruoying." "Hui Yao steamed Xi Lan by laying GUI, wine, pepper juice." March Spring Festival Customs of a bath. Age two season to be held Xiu Jie purification, elimination of ominous rituals at the water's edge, called "Fuxi (Fuxi)". March has been on (the first day of Spring Festival "), people often gather waterfront, the bluegrass, water, sprinkle body, to stain and gas accumulation of elimination of winter. Such ceremonies have "Spiritism continued soul" meaning, such as "Han Poetry": "Zheng Guozhi", March has been on, above the Zhenwei two water, and then continued soul, Bing bluegrass, elimination of ominous." This "Spiritism continued soul" cover for the living and the ancients believed that the soul is not complete, is the disease, so in the spring recovery or to summon the soul sound. (that is, for the evocation, the dead is not disturbed.) The Spring Festival is happy the Shangsi outside Tachun, young men and women friends holiday, such as "the book of songs." that is the custom Zhenwei wrote: "Qin and Wei, Fang Huan Huan xi. Gentlemen and ladies, Party 秉兰....... So the gentlemen and ladies. Make sport together, presenting one another with small peonies. The Spring Festival is often called "Shangsi" section in the Han Dynasty, Wei and Jin Dynasties changed after March 3rd, Fuxi necromancy meaning diminuendo, secular entertainment color added, evolved into the water, making friends, feasting outing, Wang Xizhi "Orchid Pavilion" is to write the custom. Tang and Song Dynasties, Shangsi Festival and the cold food festival, Tomb Sweeping day into the Ching Ming Festival, the spring outing custom is mainly from the Shangsi festival. The scent of pine branches and leaves is also considered a fragrant wood. He is making wine with cypress for mortar, pestle plane for cover from the incense cedar, white, Chinese parasol tree. "The book of rites,": "he mortar with pestle in cypress, wu." Skim: Bai nicknames. Kong Yingda: "he Dao Yu Shu Tong Bai mortar with pestle, as Bo 香桐 flocculent white, for God is appropriate." The coffin wood to pine for the expensive, "book of Rites": "his big note Junsong coffin, doctor Bai Guo Shi wood coffin." Xia and Shang gods tablets are commonly used pine production, such as "the Analects of Confucius": "eight Yi's to loose after the summer, Yin the cypress, week in chestnut." Also cedar from evil spirits, can be found in the "fifty-two party" disease. Later, Bai more plant food, cypress, Bai Zi, Bai Zhi, burning a leaf, the door hung Bai Zhi, drinking wine and so on. The Song Dynasty large worship also burned cypress, such as "history of the Song Dynasty Li Zhi": "today God worship, all burnt offerings, the wind division, Rainmaker please use Bai Chai 升烟, that God is the beginning of xin." Bai is an important raw material in the ancient incense, cedar seed, leaf, cedar wood, resin etc. are all into the sweet (or medicine), there are special "Bai Zixiang", joss powder is commonly used materials of traditional incense now. Cypress, juniper (Platycladus orientalis (including Han Huibai), juniper, cypress, Fujian cypress, cypress, Fujian cypress is a species, endemic species China, produced in Chinese Platycladus orientalis. Shaanxi bridge hill Huang Di Ling and a more than 4000 year old Platycladus orientalis "planted by Huang Di Bai", according to legend for the planting of Huang Di). Incense, the Warring States smoked furnace except for ceremonial Pei incense, incense and other life, aromatic plants and fragrant body, provide a dirty, and insects, medical, room perfume etc.. Wear vanilla, wearing sachet. The early Qin Dynasty, from the scholar officials to ordinary people (both men and women), all have to wear perfume compound atmosphere. Sachet often called "containing smelly" (smelly odor: Xiu, collectively), also known as "wearing sachet Pei wei". Vanilla, sachet is decorated, fragrant body function, and can provide a dirty disease, in the humid, Pandora plague South atmosphere in particular. "Book of rites in the": "men and women before adulthood, chicken early Ming, salty toilet, brush with angular, Jin Ying all Peirong smelly." The young man meet the elders to gargle, wash, neat bun, fasten clothing Ribbon, but also in the ear hanging sachets (Department of clothing to aroma watch respect, also can avoid the smell offensive elders). "Lisao": "Hu Jiang from the monarch Zhi Xi, Ren Qiu Lan thought peja." Drape belt river from Angelica dahurica, by Qiu Lan (bluegrass) as the bandBaldric. Hu: Hu, drape belt. "Su manure in soil filling Wei Xi, that its not Fang Shen pepper." The dirt to full sachet, Pei and belt, anti that Zanthoxylum bungeanum as smelly (near far gentleman villain).
Catalogue of books

The first chapter preface Incense Culture History 1 cigarettes was l: germinated in the Qin and 2 Boshan stove warm: early in the Qin and Han Dynasties 3 sweet light solemn: grew up in Six Dynasties time: 4 everythings perfect in Sui and Tang 5 lanes fragrance: peak in the song and Yuan Dynasties 6 full of incense: wide red line in the Ming and Qing Dynasties second chapter sweet medicine 1 aloes 2 sandalwood 3 dragon ambergris musk 4 dipterocarp 5 6 7 8 9 clove incense Styrax benzoin 10 Dalbergia 11 turmeric third Zhang Xiangpin 1 China traditional incense 2 incense type 3 natural fragrant and fragrant incense synthesis 4 differential 5 incense use Chapter fourth incense incense censer 1 family 2 style 3 clouds mountain a Boshan furnace 4 pearl gem's legendary furnace Xuande fifth chapter Buddhism and fragrant 1 noble sweet 2 wonderful incense and Buddhist 3 special support 4 incense ritual bathing the Buddha's birthday festival 5 sweet soup: sixth chapter 1 scholars and literati and fragrant incense 2 Literary Anecdotes 3 Dynasties Poetry Chanting incense 4 prose: Lin Yutang, Xu Dishan, Lin Qingxuan @##@. "Chinese Incense Culture" of Xiang's origin and development, the production and use of incense, incense, incense and the varieties and characteristics of health, incense and incense religion, literature and art, to conduct a comprehensive study and exposition, from a unique angle of refraction of the brilliant Chinese civilization. Incense culture is an ancient and new topic. Chinese with fragrant and has a history of thousands of years, ancient emperor, men of literature and writing, civilians are to incense as partners, has added to the incense praise.
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