Tibetan culture in Beijing

Date of publication:2008-3   Press: Version first (March 1, 2008)   Author:Zhang Yuxin   Pages:251   Words:210000  
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With the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism Sakya leader Kublai and eight Si BA's politics, Tibetan culture began in the history of Beijing to spread the emperor division and a large number of Tibetan monks brought the majority of Tibetan culture to build temples of Tibetan Buddhism, the Tibetan culture written in a mostly blue sky Royal "good things", Tibetan culture shrouded in smoke in Tibetan culture in Yuan fruitful cultural history, Chinese Tim flower -- Mongolia public school and Tibetan Tripitaka in Han language of exploration during the two dynasties belief of Tibetan Buddhism, a large number of Tibetan lamas in Beijing Ming Qing two generations all over the capital of Tibetan Buddhism temples, Jinchuan a number of Tibetan into Tibetan cultural Beijing permanent residents as the royal garden to the Imperial Palace cache of Tibetan culture and Tibetan culture melting bibliography @##@ remember appendix in the early dissemination of Tibetan culture in Beijing after the social customs and old people in Beijing This book is one of the achievements of philosophy and Social Sciences in Beijing, "fifteen" project planning. The book through the literature research, field investigation, research on Tibetan culture spread in Beijing history, and its influence on the history and culture of Beijing. The main contents of the book is divided into 11 parts, plus an appendix. One, with the Yuan Dynasty established, Kublai and Lamaism Sakya leader eight Si BA's politics, Tibetan culture began in the history of Beijing to spread. In 1247, monk Sakya Saban articles nephew eight Si BA in Liangzhou, on behalf of all over Tibet, the church forces, held in the history of the famous Liangzhou for talks with the Mongolian King 阔端, Tibet local official to Mongolia khanate. Saban died, eight Si Ba succession for the Sakya leader, and become the Yuan Dynasty's founding emperor Kublai politics and won the Mongolia khanate, after sweating, was crowned emperor. At the same time, the history of the Beijing with the Yuan Dynasty unified the whole country and the development status of the continuous improvement. Yuan nine years (1272) as the country, known as the "most", by the local government's political center (the), rose to national capital, become the country's political, economic, and cultural center. In two, Emperor division and a large number of Buddhist monks brought the majority of Tibetan culture. Due to historical reasons, the Tibetan history, natural, about politics, literature, painting, medicine, science and technology knowledge, collects in the religion, so from a certain sense, Lamaism is the carrier of Tibetan culture, Tibetan Lama is the main propagation and culture of. The Yuan Dynasty believe in Lamaism, sealed with eight Si Ba and Sakya school served as leader of emperor division. At the same time, set the yuan, in charge of Tibetan Buddhism and national affairs, and to bring the emperor. The Yuan Dynasty is a dozen emperor, they led a large number of followers (including the Uygur and other ethnic groups to Lamaist monks), brought the majority of Tibetan culture. Three, establish the Lama Temple, the Tibetan culture written in a mostly blue sky. Worship the Lama taught, the Yuan Dynasty emperors, therefore, at the cost of a large number of property, in most of the construction of a large number of the Lama Temple, as the emperor and lamas living, to repair, but also become the kings and nobles of the spirit. Condensed the Tibetan culture, the Lama Temple, built mostly, this is a special architectural language, to spread the Tibetan culture. In this paper, combining with field investigation, and through a large number of literatures, the textual research of the Yuan Dadu mainly Lama temple. Four, the "good things", Tibetan culture shrouded in smoke. The Yuan Dynasty palace, have to do a lot of Buddhist activities every year, mainly by the emperor emperor imparted the Buddha's precepts, held initiations and other religious ceremonies, or led the monks practice of thing, praying, for the emperor birthday rang disaster and difficult, the general name for "good things". Their names are very diverse, only found in historical records of as many as 30 kinds, every time "doing good" have to spend a lot of money, must first be Buddha's precepts of the new emperor reigned before, after the death of the "Royal" to be enshrined in the temple. The high Lama these religious activities, large scale, well known, in the smoke and chanting sound, is to experience a mysterious Tibetan culture. Five, the Tibetan culture is fruitful in the yuan, Chinese cultural history Tim flower -- Mongolia public school and Tibetan Tripitaka for prospecting. After the Tibetan culture spread to the Yuan Dynasty from the Tibet plateau, and the traditional Chinese culture and the Yuan Dynasty from grassland brought about by the nomadic culture, after the collision, decades of exchange, fusion, came to fruition. Emperor eight Si Ba based on Devanagari, combined with the features of Mongolian, the creation of the Mongolia new words (known as eight Si Ba characters), used in official documents. The Yuan Dynasty was modeled with Professor Han imperial college of the traditional Confucian culture, the establishment of Mongolia country in most and all over the country, with the Grand Lama teach eight Si Ba characters, Han, Tibetan, Mongolian and promoted the cultural exchange; in thirteenth Century 80 time metaphase, the Tibetan, Han, Uygur and other organizations all monks who Dade and scholars, after three years of Tibetan and Han, two different characters of Buddhist scriptures, checked, exploration of their similarities and differences, is a large-scale summary of Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism cultural exchange, has greatly enriched the treasure house of Chinese traditional culture. Six, Ming and Qing two generations of believe in Lamaism, a large number of Tibetan lamas resident in Beijing. After the demise of the Yuan Dynasty, gathered in Beijing's great Lama returned to Tibet. Ming Yongle nineteen years (in 1421) officially moved the capital to Beijing, due to the "due to popular rule" policy on Tibet, there are a large number of Lama from Tibet to return to Beijing. The Ming Dynasty was in the Tibetan conference three French and five kings, each of them to send a large number of Lama Jin Jing tribute. There are about two thousand or three thousand big Lama resident in Beijing every year, many of them are called the king, the Buddha, the honorary title of the west, they pass, in Beijing, Shoutu cloth to teach, or translation of Buddhist scriptures, become the disseminators of Tibetan culture. The Qing Dynasty took "due to customs for the governance of Lamaism, the ruling Mongolian and Tibetan nationality policy. Its core is the unique Lamaism leader. In Darai V, when Qian Long VI Panchen Lama in Beijing and Shanxi to the rate of a large number of pilgrims, who had great influence on history. Kangchenjunga 胡图克 graph and a batch of Qinghai big Lama perennial Beijing, the Qing Dynasty travel service. The Tibetan Lama and Mongolia area annual placement, turns to Beijing to appear before the emperor. In addition, while the total quota lama lama temple about 3000, the supply of land tax by government. They objectively facilitated the spread of Tibetan culture. Seven, Ming and Qing two generations all over the capital of the Lama temple. The temple is Tibetan monks engaged in religious activities and living by. From the culturalSense, the Dalai Lama is the most important carrier of Tibetan culture, Tibetan culture is treasure trove of cultural relics and museum. Ming, Qing two generations because of their political needs, vigorously promote respect, support, use of Lamaism policy at the same time, in Beijing to build the Lama temple. In this paper, according to the relevant literature and field surveys, the textual research of the 10 major monasteries of the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty, more than 20 famous Lama temple. The Lama Temple quantity, large-scale, magnificent appearance, greatly enriched the Beijing architectural image, strengthening the Beijing as the capital of a unified multi-ethnic country historical character, but also the Tibetan culture in Beijing image description. Eight, the size of a group of Jinchuan Tibetan become permanent residents of Beijing. Qing Qian Long period, in the pacification of Sichuan Tibetan big, small Jinchuan, once part of the Tibetan moved, to become a permanent resident of Beijing. Is the first time in twelve years of Qianlong fourteen years (1747 - 1749) in Jinchuan after the battle, the move Beijing mainly large soldiers in Jinchuan and the number of craftsmen, but ten or twenty people. The second time in thirty-six years of Qianlong forty-one years (1771 - 1776) after the end of the battle of Jinchuan, moved to Beijing is about 200 people, mostly soldiers and male and female art students. The size of these moved to Beijing Jinchuan Tibetan were placed in Fragrance Hill near, as a zuoling, belonging to the imperial palace is a white flag. Yi Tong is enshrined in the palace, the Tibetan music and dance into the palace. Nine, the Tibetan culture as the Royal Garden luster. China ancient garden has a long history, forming a unique style of landscape garden. After the Southern Song Dynasty, and gradually formed a literati garden as the representative of the Jiangnan garden and the Royal Garden as the representative of the North garden. The grand scale of the Royal Garden, is an integral part of the court, the important material and plastic Beijing historical image and character. Royal Garden mature and reached the historical peak of art, is the Qing Dynasty Beijing mountain five Park and Mountain Resort in Chengde as the representative, it is with the absorption, fusion of the Tibetan culture inseparable. It mainly displays in several aspects: the first is greatly enriched and widened the garden design idea; second is greatly enriched the royal garden building image; third, the Tibetan Lama Temple is the Royal Garden Architecture Center, is also an important borrowed scenery and landscape point of view, because as landscape composition of the center. Ten, the the Imperial Palace chamber of Tibetan culture. The Imperial Palace as a landmark of Beijing, has a decisive influence on the history of Beijing image and character. From the cultural perspective, it is a place in Beijing's history of Tibetan culture: 1, the Qing Dynasty in the Forbidden City, not only to build a temple, there are a large number of Tibetan Buddhist temple. According to the architectural forms can be divided into two categories, in Yuhua Pavilion, China Vatican building as the representative of the independent building, of about 35, contained in the Tibetan Buddhist temple buildings more than 10; 2, the Forbidden City Palace is responsible for the management of Lamaism affairs "in the scriptures"; 3, the Imperial Palace a massive, rich and colorful Tibetan cultural relics, such as the Buddhist scriptures, statues, Buddhist Thangka, etc., not only the quantity, variety complete, and sells goods; 4, Lamaism not only penetration in the Qing Dynasty's political life and daily life, but also runs through Daqing and funeral activities birthday. Eleven, the social customs of Tibetan culture and the old Beijing. After the Tibetan culture began to spread to Beijing from the Yuan Dynasty, and the Han nationality culture of old Beijing, hundreds of years after the collision, exchange, fusion, finally in the Beijing air plant, has become an important part of Beijing's history and culture, the main performance is to integrate the old Beijing temple fairs, and festivals and funeral culture and social customs. Many famous lama temple regularly set up Temple City, become the business activities and play place. Lama Temple ghost, Lamaism religious activities, into the activities of old Beijing Festival culture. Some Lamaism religious ceremony is the old Beijing burial culture absorption, to be a part of. Appendix: the beginning of the Republic of China in 1911 after the spread of Tibetan culture in Beijing Xin Hai revolution, Qing Dynasty emperor to abdicate, Beijing no longer Dajian Lama Temple, Imperial Grand Lama of the emperor also left Beijing. However, the Tibetan culture is not far away from Beijing, far away, but with a new form of activity in Beijing. This is mainly manifested in two aspects, one is the "" Tibetan vernacular newspaper ", two, is the founder of the Mongolian and Tibetan School, Professor of Tibetan culture, Tibetan Youth talent.
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