Five, customs for thousands of years, generations of Tujia people rely on Konoha's folk songs, love, hand in hand into the marriage, deduce countless touching love story. Only a short while ago, due to the feudal shackles, let many marriage flat and uninteresting...... ◇ wedding -- since that dad pulled the matchmaker placed at the gate of the reunion umbrella into the fire hall, she knew he has let it agreed to this marriage, know her heart liver will please g, horoscopes, to banging away litters by her, marry her. To tell the truth, she was really afraid of father to the media umbrella ignore, so she had to undergo the ordeal, have some at a loss. Many years ago, my sister is dissatisfied with the arranged marriage than marry that missing an arm of the rich man and committed suicide by jumping off a cliff. In recent years, what all good, the money is there, do not worry about food and clothing, a portrait of the fairy house as her worship together, wood cut, water does not pick, not without a field, threw her support in vain the net net, water supple and tender. Dad also make every attempt to send her to school to study at their own expense, after graduation to Xiang Yang troupe, the troupe's good Yang Qiao Qiao heroine, my best actress on the understanding of Shuai Junjun's actor, the actor became mind liver meat. The heart, liver and silly, competing even when acting is her real guns and bullets bite itched pain, red imprint, a few days do not disappear. The liver and heart were well behaved, competing as he entered a "father" to kneel in front of the father refused to get up, happy father stroked his beard, laughing and fu. Want to get married, it means to get out of her group, remove the daughter to leave my parents, brothers, to serve my liver, serve her there heart liver, so this time should start weeping. She knows, it is Tujia daughter since ancient times, is a song also has cried, cried and song emotion, have words with tears, is married with tears sound of crying. Life, death is also, to stay away from family and home, how can not heartache to tears? Although, now it is no longer synonymous with accusations of arranged marriage, but still is a measure of a woman virtuous standard. MarriedWhen not cry out, people would think the woman heart, wish (wait) leave parents. Therefore, the women married to cry, cry sister is my sister, don't cry, sister is silly sister. Even if not cry, also cry several voice stem Hao, although the tone is fixed single, but cry word is rich and colorful, need him weeping, want to play. Therefore, it is a measure of a women's literary talent standard. So, she also quietly weeping, obediently to complete some generations of ancestors layout operations: "ah, you eat them a little. / meat slag. / do help people / words. / you they eat a little. / crispy rice rice / you put the somebody else is / blow the sky / home for you / fried pumpkin is a piece of you / tell you he is like bacon cut / hand. / they give you / fry cowpea cowpea is acid. / you about his intestines fried crisp cotton is /. / your daughter / go out / you lousy bowel bad belly is / rotten feet. This is crying scolded aunt is the matchmaker, is to do a good deed but is scolded the matchmaker. However, you scold is, this is the rules, no one said you scold not, no matchmaking so angry, so sad, but happy, let you crying scold, you cried enough scold enough, the matchmaker will shed tears, said: Yan Zai big be a high-rise / dog Zai big to go outside / strong red to be unearthed / big daughter to throw Hydrangea / aunt give you do is the Millennium OK / don't you mouth. Remember the heart. The weeping daughter feel shy, yes, aunt made media which point not good! It was his aunt went with my liver for matchmaking, how also learn from the ancients to cry a scold the matchmaker? In the past, people cry his parents are cross the street scale, a scale is two kind of star (heart), bosom inside said is son and daughter, daughter-in-law is said with outsiders. However, each one to the husband's family, her joy and wipe stool is tea, and fry tasty and tell good, also end the wash feet water to wash your own heart liver. The heart, liver is really also of, don't wash his he must wash, wash one side while gazed at his smile, the eyes buried feelings like Tiankeng, bottomless, let she touched and palpitation. Where there is such a warm home, so gentle heart liver? Why cry was a hydrangea dozens of core (heart), look good couldn't touch the bar (the)? She looked in the mirror and squeeze eyebrow, nose alone scratch, shy laughing. The cry what? Over the years, my parents go through untold hardships to pull his adult, just can help parents equinox sorrow for a bit tired, but to leave them to the home to others, not only did not give parents leave what, also brought a big house the dowry, a restless! So, sad, sad sad sad, like all the married woman, really cry up parents: mother ah / you are running man. / in vain effort / running back grass. / drying (fuck) Xing (heart) / thrush him ConA Yang bird egg / bamboo it wrapped around the old wrong Gua rattan / chicken with duck's egg is to hold / mouse child it is for the cat fight / you are blind to the point. / you light a short power. / fuck bear heart / daughter remember to mother well. / not report mother love you / mother / daughter remember that mother love you / not report mother grace. Like an awl cone like, this word is the tears of the sting of the heart of the owner, all women mother, aunt, sister, sister, sister and the village are all surrounded, accompany her together with tears, weeping. She cried herself not Haoer male, with mother sitting only a few years; mother cry cub falls upon the flesh, her fingers hurt the liver pain mother; she cried million catties burden you pick the bitter, where do you straight waist; her cry was formerly a steamed sweet potato two incense, a a cake of two full, is now a rapeseed and depression, know the package not packing; the sister do not cry not anxious, elder sister good remember; you had it sticks sticks a dew, my umbrella and then to foot. With this the song cry, village has suddenly rose Qitian flood, ravines, bumpy, all washed the feelings of the stream, stampeded, cried for three days and five days, ten days and a half months after the tears, the heart liver - based song cry, in the stream to go forward with great strength and vigour, to come to the wedding. The top -- braids pulled into Baba bun disc. Then face -- face hair pulled up, the face of the crescent moon curved eyebrows, fine. This is the daughter-in-law, this to the boudoir, this is thoroughly farewell daughter go to another life. Heart liver car Phi hung wounded, Yang theater percussion music non-stop, one side is glad cry, one side is the happy smile, be full of joy in the Yang opera tune, red dowry onto the car, beautiful bride on the car, kiss just the groom got, bustling wedding band on the car. Custom and wisdom of a nation, art and folk songs of a nation, and all the old new rhyme welled up in the car on the road, Chung, Chung on the mountain is the mountain outside the day is the day of the big world. Peng Xueming.
Editor in chief, from the beam 先学 and Tuo 年玖 a number of Tujia experts and scholars weatherwoman's "Hunan Tujia customs" a book and the readers. As a national work of the department heads, I'm really glad! "Hunan Tujia customs" a book from a human perspective of Ethnology and culture, the Tujia local customs and practices, the etiquette custom, landscape and other aspects of a more systematic, comprehensive introduction. Carefully read, you will find this book not only text beautiful smooth, cultural customs and the unique, knowledge and a strong interest, but the book illustration, narration and comment are full of classical beauty and romance, permeated with the beautiful charming alien taste. Book the Tujia ancestors production, life in the inheritance and development of the organic integration into the overall culture of Tujia nationality, its purpose is to put the Tujia culture the uncut jade to the world to promote and showcase, let more people read the Tujia Tujia, awareness, and in our country the the national family, to promote national unity, to contribute to building a harmonious society. Familiar with the Tujia people know, Tujia and self proclaimed "Bizika", is an ancient nationality with a long history. According to historical records, one of the Tujia ancestors the period of Ba people mainly live in the middle reaches of Hanjiang River area. The early Western Zhou Dynasty, Zhou Wang enfeoffment world, from where the closure to Zhou royal family, Zong Ji, called the Pakistan country or country. Spring and autumn and the Warring States period, the Palestinian National moved to the south of the Yangtze River, has in Qingjiang, Sichuan gap to the Sichuan East of china. In 316 BC, Pakistan wiped out by the state of Qin, Qin Ba become. A part of Ba people in the back, more people or automaticOr be forced to start large-scale drift, migration to the quartet. At that time, Ba East pick Qin Shu, West, southwest is the Yelang, the north is Chu, and just south of the present Wuling in northwestern Hunan mountain, primitive, with much land and few people, scattered across the Miao and Yao ethnic minority in this system (Wuling, five Xi "the brute"), there is no uniform stability state, and the economic and cultural level is "close to the original state, as the ba". Therefore, compared with the East, West and North, the south mountain is easier to achieve large-scale population migration. So the country out of the country, a part of Ba people in succession from the south into the Hunan Wuling mountain areas of Northwestern hunan. These come from the Palestinian people has become an important part of Wuling and the five Xi "the brute" at that time, they thrive in Xiangxi north, and other local ethnic members interact with each other and gradually become the main body of Wuling "the brute". And when the five generation, Wuling area "the brute" because of the long living in the same area, have a common origin, in the frequent contacts close, but also has many common features in the mode of production, language, culture, customs and habits and psychological identity and other aspects, and formed a relatively stable National community. Historical records of the Wuling mountain offspring of Ba people as the main body, and some members of other local national integration and national are mentioned, such as the Song Dynasty history in the term "native", "our country", "soldiers", which refers to soil family and Tujia soldiers. Qing emperor Yong Zheng "chieftain", with the immigration of Han, Tujia minority area appeared "Earth people", "guest people", "Earth people" by the Chinese people themselves as "mound". However, because of the feudal rulers adopted a policy of ethnic oppression and discrimination, ethnic composition of Tujia nationality has not recognized. After the founding of new China, at the party's national policy under the influence, Tujia people's national consciousness awakening. In 1950, Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture Yongshun County family of Tujia female teachers Tian Xintao as Miao representatives recommended by the Beijing to attend the National Day celebration. During the ceremony, she directly to the central leadership has introduced Tujia customs, language, transfer the Tujia crafts "sealand Karp", expressing the Tujia ethnic identification requirements of desire, caused the high attention of the Central Party committee. Over the next few years, the party and the state is determined according to the relevant requirements and standards of ethical component, has appointed several experts investigation, investigation and identification of Tujia components. In January 3, 1957, the CPC Central Committee issued the United Front Work Department, formally identified Tujia minority single. Since then, this in the history of the buried for thousands of years of nation reborn. Hunan Tujia nationality mainly live in Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture under the jurisdiction of Yongshun, Longshan, Baojing, Guzhang, Luxi County, Zhangjiajie City, under the jurisdiction of Sangzhi, Cili, Yongding, Wulingyuan and other counties of Changde city; Shimenn County and Huaihua City, such as Yuanling County, a total of 2639500 people, accounting for the total population of ethnic minorities accounted for 44%, the Tujia and the total population of 32.9%, Hunan is the most populous ethnic minority. In Tujia and the formation and development of the long history, living in Xiangxi north to the Hunan Tujia and East Sichuan, Western Hubei Tujia together, with their diligence and wisdom, to create a shine with great splendor national history and culture, forming a unique local customs and traditional Chinese culture. Through the "Hunan Tujia customs" one book, we can not only understand the Hunan Tujia history, living environment, customs, religious beliefs, ethics, literature and art, education and sports, philosophy and aesthetic ideas, can also see the nation which appear in the long history of the development of national spirit, the degree of civilization and its historical status and role. The hinterland of Hunan Wuling Mountain Forest of Northwestern Hunan Tujia minority mountainous peaks, dense, special geographical environment that is different from the plains and rivers created unique Tujia mountain culture. Tujia people are industrious and mutual national virtue, honesty and trustworthiness of the ethnic character, extensive and practical way of life and the equal order ethic culture characteristics, is the embodiment of this mountain culture. Due to the relatively closed and the people of the habitat is highly dependent on the living environment, Tujia ancestors had the ecological very advanced concept, they love nature, comply with nature, pay attention to the harmony between man and nature, advocating the harmony between man and nature, the thing I love, pay attention to suit one's measures to local conditions, reconcile oneself to one's situation. Old Yamanaka, the Hunter Valley, you women, cattle cowboy is not the notion of a creator and operator. In the life of Tujia people, and built up the mountain wild herbs, edible is the Tujia floor corner, colorful, New Zealand Karp knot grass clothing Maogusi dance, bold weeding gongs and drums -- from life to art, from a rice porridge to draw dance songs, all obtain raw material locally, with of the flow, showing distinct characteristics of mountain people. Tujia people love life, fear God, to treat life, follow the creation rule and the ebb and flow of things. These simple ideas infiltration in daily life, forming a unique customs from generation to generation, invariable: the beginning of spring, the spring cattle, eighth of the fourth month in April married caterpillar, in May July fifteen Dragon Boat mining mugwort, worship God, in spring season 开秧 door, winter hunting season to Meishan, new year's Eve rob head, spring. Sing to God Nuo opera, celebrate the harvest dance waving...... These ancient folk custom embodies the wisdom of Tujia people, is directly reflected in the mountain farming life in the traditional culture of Tujia people and true portrayal. Tujia while living in the high mountains and lofty hills, and rulers carried out "is not to leave the country, Chinese does not enter the cave" national detained by the Jimi policy, but in the history of Hunan Tujia and not in a completely closed state. Northwest Hunan Han soil just at the junction, since the West Han Dynasty, in order to strengthen the rule of the feudal, consolidate political power, Wang Zhaochang troops in the immigration, border frontier, so that the northwestern Hunan Tujia area from a relatively closed region into Hunan open earlier, to accept the advanced culture in particular, is one of the minority areas of the Han culture of the Central Plains faster. In Hunan Tujia history, both the economic exchanges between the various ethnic groups in times of peace, or war Dynasty troops attack and defense, Tujia inhabited area, guest interaction between soil, army, seedlings kept quite frequent and active posture, collision and integration between the national culture and the increasing increased, so that the Tujia culture while maintaining the national gene and characteristicsAt the same time, also absorb the infiltration and influence of Han people, including ethnic culture, embody the blend and composite multi culture. Create the first Academy in Tujia area -- Dongzhou academy from the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty Shaoxing years Luxi, Hunan Tujia minority area of Xi Hanwen, Confucianism has been repaired wind Sheng, the Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang is ordered in Tujia area "the toast is Li County School", which emerged including Chen Guangtai, Peng Yonghang, Tian Jinnan, Peng Shiduo, Tian Xing six. A number of relatively successful Tujia scholars. Their writings and the creation of life, pay attention to the reality, fresh and simple, clear and wide, showing a different from the Central Plains of the unique literary ecological and cultural landscape. In Chinese history, Tujia is a known as the brave warrior nation. "Huayang · Ba Zhi" contains, battle of Makino, "Ba Shi Yong Rui, song and dance to Ling, Yin people 前徒倒戈". Reign of terror of the battlefield, Tujia ancestors fight dance, carry the world before one, the frames in the history of aggressive posture and romantic, it is like a genetic code, then flowed in Tujia people's blood, make this a warlike people has a glorious history of the Eastern Han Dynasty national hero: Wuling canal handsome. One way to rise up in arms against the court extort excessive taxes and levies; the five generation of leader Peng Shi Ma Tu sorrow war Xi Zhou obtained national autonomous power; the Ming Dynasty Tusi leaders Peng Mingfu, Peng wing South Xinjiang Anti Japanese, made the first south-east exploits; Xin Hai revolution period, Li Dawu to join the Republic of Tujia sages Xin Du five, Yong national calamity relief; the period of new democratic revolution, Liao Hansheng a large number of Tujia men followed He Long to the troops on the northern expedition, Shouyi Nanchang, open up these revolutionary base; during the period of Anti Japanese War, Qin general Zi Bin off Burma, breaking Bi Chongfeng, die for one's country...... In the Chinese nation fight a bloody battle, and on the road, Zhengzheng Tiegu Hunan Tujia people created the immortal monument ever remembered in the annals of history with a flesh and blood and body. Their brave and battlewise, strong chivalrous temperament temperament and striving to Jay, heroic nation bloody is worrying about the world, dare be a person first Huxiang spirit and soul. I am a native of Xiangxi Tujia people, he has a strong sense of national self-confidence and pride. I deeply appreciate that, only in the China under the leadership of the Communist Party, Tujia people live to liberation, happiness and goog health life, truly realize the development and progress of the nation; only in the party's national policy guidelines, Tujia areas of economic and social development to a new level, to a new peak. I always thought, publishing a book, not only is the writing of learning, it is in a pen, carefully, with the wisdom to promote social development and progress contribution. In recent years, with the rapid development of national economy, the national customs as the main body of the national cultural tourism industry is developing rapidly. In this situation, vigorously carry forward the national culture, to explore, consolidation and development of ethnic traditional culture resources, and actively explore new ways to stimulate people one's ability and cleverness and creativity in the cultural field, which is better for ethnic minorities and minority areas of cultural construction and economic development services, is a very meaningful thing. Editor of "Hunan Tujia customs" one book, it is hoped to provide reference for a person of noble aspirations and seeking the best combination of culture and economy, through the promotion of docking national traditional culture resources and the modern market economy, the establishment of an effective national cultural industry, create a good economic benefit and social benefit, the benefit of the minority regions and the. From this perspective, "Hunan Tujia customs" a book published, not only for us to understand and study of Hunan Tujia history and culture and Huxiang culture opens a new window, also reflects a national mission and time responsibility. An important feature of culture is national, is an important source of national vitality, cohesion and creativity, but also the common spiritual wealth of the Chinese nation. Let us in the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee, hold high the "unity and progress of all ethnic groups together, common prosperity and development" banner, in the party's national policy shine bright, hearten spirit, inspired wisdom, development path along the production development, affluent life, and ecological good into the open, to make greater contributions to the prosperity and development of minority economic, cultural and other undertakings and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!
The preface (Wang Dejing) of the soul of the mountain water soul of Xiangxi landscape, geographical environment, natural landscape 1 two 2 in the Zhangjiajie national Forest Park SUOXIYU 3 Tianzishan 4 Tianmenshan Mountain 5 Maoyan River 6 Meng Dong River 7 nine days 8 9 hole brook sit long gorge 10 red stone forest three, cultural monuments 1 first eight Cave Creek 2 column 3, Laosicheng 4 door Fuji 5 inside 6 Puguang temple 7 old yard 8 jade cave Grottoes 9 Mao Gang 10 old division city 11 five thunder 12 Xikou Zhen Qin Jia Cheng Liao City 15 13 14 these former revolutionary base areas -- Zhangjiajie City 16 Soviet tower lying 17 Wangcun town 18 Xichehe town 19 clip Mountain National Forest Park, 20 ancient county Yuanling township of the vernacular rhyme of a mountain, production ready [link] production customs data of 1 agricultural 2 Fishing 3 4 5 two forestry animal husbandry industry, clothing fabric [link] beautiful dress custom data of 1 ancient Tujia ancestors Dress 2 "chieftain" of Tujia costumes "change 3 soil to the stream" Houtu family dress 4 Tujia clothing decoration 5 Tujia jewelry three, diet Hill Fresh story [link] diet custom data of 1 tea 2 liquor 3 meals 4 La dish 5 sauerkraut 6 dishes 7 non-staple food four, building reading corner building [link] building custom Data of 1 Building 2 building types, origin of extant five wedding wedding [link] marriage custom data of 1 forms of marriage 2 traditional marriage procedures six, growing to meet new [link] birth customs data of 1 2 3 three 4 news delivery on 5 to sit on the 6 full moon in 700, 8, 9 and seven funeral white happy [heir link] funeral customs data of 1 ancient funeral 2 modern funeral etiquette spirit [link] eight, etiquette custom data of 1 Birthday etiquette 2 hunting ceremony etiquette 3 Building 4 weapons system 5 daily etiquette, festival Nine Festival [link] festival customs data of 1 have the Spring Festival 2 Baishou Festival 3 vault section 4 March three 5 April eight 6 June six July 7 - 8 August fifteen ten, belief taboo statue day dear [link] to faith taboo data (a) belief data of 1 totem worship of nature worship and ancestor worship 2 3 4 respected TIMA 5 letter sign 6 channel teach, Buddhism (two) data of 1 taboo taboo 2 bogey 3 daily taboo eleven, literature context [link] for literature 1 folk literature scholar literature twelve, 2 music and dance, drama, acrobatics ancestral dance [link] (a) the music data of 1 folk songs 2 traditional instrumental music (two) dance. Material 1 Baishou Dance 2 funeral dance 3 bells Dance Dance Dance 4 Mei Chang 5 vault 6 plate lamp 7 high imperial lamp 8 Water Dragon (three) drama information 1 Maogusi 2 nuoyuanxi 3 lantern show 4 Yang Opera (four) art data of 1 three drum sticks 2 Yugu 3 money plate 4 good books 5 nine thirteen lashes, crafts beautiful printing and dyeing [link] process data of 1 New Zealand Karp 2 cross stitch embroidery knitting dyeing 5 3 4 6 fourteen, sculpture language wonderful word language [link] language data of 1 Tujia language usage 2 Tujia language features fifteen, education into Yue Pu college [link] education data of 1 oral education in the form of 2 oral education content sixteen, medicine and said "a doctor" [link] medical data of 1 Soil and 2 Soil drug therapy of earthwork 3 medical books Huizhen 4 health care seventeen, sports GUI martial art [link] physical data of 1 Daily Sports 2 stunt sports of the Wuling Yan Jun \ \ a bloody ruffian [link] celebrity biography 1 one-way three broken Han 2 Peng scholar worry pillars covenant 3 Qin heavy Wang 反明 uprising 4 Peng 翼南, Peng Jinchen Zhejiang Anti Japanese 5 to Guodong rock house alliance 6 Luo glory bloody battlefield 7 Sun Kaihua in Taiwan 8. 9 Yichang uprising Tang Luo Jian Qiu Hu Guo Tao Yuan 10 women leaders to P 11 kings 尔琢 plan reunion 12 patriots Li Zhuchen Liao Hansheng after the 14 general Zheng 13 busily engaged in warfare Liaoshen 15 historians to explore the theory of master 16 Zhuo Jiong 17 Ye Yucui 18 Tujia brocade master singer Zhang Youtao 19 Tujia king Tian Maozhong @##@. In the life of Tujia people, and built up the mountain wild herbs, edible is the Tujia floor corner, colorful, New Zealand Karp knot grass clothing Maogusi dance, bold weeding gongs and drums -- from life to art, from a rice porridge to draw dance songs, all obtain raw material locally, with of the flow, showing distinct characteristics of mountain people. Tujia people love life, fear God, to treat life, follow the creation rule and the ebb and flow of things. These simple ideas infiltration in daily life, forming a unique customs from generation to generation, invariable.
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