Zhong Jingwen (1903 ~ 2002.1) Professor, doctoral tutor of Beijing Normal University, research on prose writer and folk literature. Under static smell. Guangdong Haifeng. Author of "traces heart mark", "classic", China prose editor.
Two, hunting, nomadic taboo, custom. Hunters, herdsmen customs of taboo, reflecting their sustenance harvest and prevent disasters of hope. The core of cultural awareness of the value of these practices, is the requirement of economic benefits. Sanhe County in the new year's day to the lunar January ten days, to be held in the spring and autumn Ding offerings, for hunting harvest. Many forest Orion, to sacrifice before offering hunting, hunting, divination hunting direction; into the mountain before the mountain festival. The hunter beast, not singing, dancing, also cannot have the noise, so as not to run other animals. Some of the farmers in agricultural and pastoral areas in order to protect cattle, and thanks to the cattle for customs. Such as the Jiading farm, built in October 1st meters Yee, worn on the horns of cattle, for labor. Sichuan Tianquan County in October 1st, there were fried rice cake worship king, with cake hanging horn to reward cattle habits. They think the crop harvest in cattle. The people of Zhejiang cattle, winter close the corral, covered with withered grass, cattle and so. In warm weather and date, but also brought cattle in the sun; in the column to remove the rotten grass, change the new grass, the cattle eat. It is said that the longicorn water from light, if you see no cake angle, to cry. This primitive animistic belief, practice is the reflection of the animal the personification of the twists and turns. Wuchang farmers have the fifth lunar January called "cow days". People want to eat cattle, also warned the house don't flog cattle. This is the agricultural society of the importance of farm animal performance. Notable is, in Guangxi Province, there is the custom of livestock. Reportedly, the new year's Eve this day, the farm each urn drawing new water ("polyester news"), return, along the road to sing "sheep Rooster dog pig duck, domestic animals soul come back," ". Lunar January bottom, Pulsatilla, wormwood and rice farmers harvest made of glutinous rice, add the fish and shrimp to offering corral, named "the duck and the soul". Late early June, people want to dye colored rice, pig food, called "offering kraal". Colored rice with chicken and cattle in the field, to Laos, sits and food, called "the cattle soul". All of these folk are a reflection of the China ancient farmers pay attention to livestock power resources -- the cultural connotation of farm cattle. "Feeder cattle", "love", "cattle" cattle "," bovine soul ", is a unique performance of this kind of farming, animal husbandry folk culture series. Three, hunting, animal husbandry production process of folklore. Orion hunting custom is in long-term production experience in the process, the accumulation of wisdom, but also overcome the wild animal survival means. Mountain Orion deeply understand: if not to win, in the game before. There is danger of being eaten by wild animals. The urge to survive forced them to have a lot of experience and methods to overcome the beast poisonous insect. Like Jilin's Orion created in the body with tobacco tar defeat the serpent; upside down in the mouth of the cave, was killed with a shotgun wild boar; bear hunting in a hollow tree; in the snow to catch a tiger; catch musk deer with string in the brushwood; method in the forest to build mill nail catching mink, etc.. They beat the beast, played an important role for survival. The Oroqen hunting animals, birds have pheasant, dragon, sand grouse, tree chicken, deer, wild boar, Yi Tang, bear, wolf, tiger, leopard, otter, squirrel, Fox and so on more than 10 kinds. These prey not only solve the needs of material life; but, also created a number of distinctive local hunting practices. In Mongolia minority area, also according to different hunting object, creating a variety of hunting organization form, fox, wolf capture "hunting", by zuoling (or Ji Tai) a collection of village of soldiers, and two or three times a year, "tribal hunting"; by the ZhasakeThe collection of their own, once a year "flag hunting" held by the soldiers; long rate within the union, or a combination of one or two flags at the "union hunting"; and the emperor personally "Qin Lin hunting" etc........
The first chapter first festival folklore and ethnology second basic characteristics of third day festival folk folk social functions in section fourth China folk of the origin and development of the second chapter material production folk custom section agricultural folklore section second, nomadic hunting and fishing Ye Minsu third craftsmen folklore section fourth commercial and transportation third chapter folk material life the first festival diet people want to second festival folk costumes third residential building folk fourth chapter first festival folklore folklore classification description section second clan folk festival third community and fifth chapter organization folk festival folk custom first day festival the origin and development of the second day festival activities and characteristics of the sixth chapter of rites the first section of life ritual properties of second day was born on third adult rites of marriage fourth day fifth day funeral ceremony seventh chapter folk belief first object of belief in section second section third faith belief media forms fourth basic characteristics of folk belief in Chapter eighth folk science and technology The first festival folk science knowledge second festival folk technology...... The ninth chapter folk oral literature (on) the tenth chapter folk oral literature (under) the eleventh chapter folk language chapter twelfth folk art folk games and entertainment thirteenth chapter fourteenth chapter China folklore of chapter fifteenth of the sixteenth chapter foreign folklore ethnography character translation table @##@ English postscript Chinese now folklore, from 1918 Beijing was not ballad collection at that time to today, it has been experienced eighty years. During this long period of time, China folklore process, not Everything is going smoothly., including both twists and turns, also have a setback. Even in developing smoothly when, in the scope is not very comprehensive. But, in general, in this century, this new physics step forward, it is not completely stagnant or back -- in addition to the Cultural Revolution during that special period in history. Today, in this twentieth Century is coming to an end, is about to enter in twenty-first Century, China folklore presents unprecedented prosperous weather. It both from the scale of development, or from the forward speed, can be said to be surprised.
Zhong Jingwen, Professor, doctoral tutor of Beijing Normal University, research on prose writer and folk literature, "Introduction to folklore" is his classic, still be included in the university required course!
Culture @ 2017