Custom and belief

Date of publication:2012-8   Press: Fudan University press   Author:Zhong Fulan   Pages:177   Words:109000  

Zhong Fulan: graduated from the Philosophy Department of Fudan University. For many years in the Shanghai news media work, a former senior reporter associate director, Shanghai radio news. The director of the Department of journalism professor of East China Normal University, doctoral supervisor, School of communication, East China Normal University Research Center Director, "the dissemination of research of" deputy editor in chief; Shanghai City Folk Culture Association, the Hongkong Chinese Culture Research Institute consultant. Folklore expert, author of "Chinese folk culture introduction", "modern", "Chinese folk custom rheological flow", "folk custom and culture in", "culture of origin", "Chinese mysterious culture Encyclopedia of knowledge", "China hand, customs and etiquette", "twelve students Xiao's story", "customs examination" the streets of Shanghai, "and" and "broadcast commentary: function, topics and language art", "radio and television journalism", "radio and television review course"; editor in chief is the "national style" Academic Sinica, "culture", "said China nearly 100 years of social life changes" and "Shanghai historical sites and local" etc..
Author brief introduction

Clothing is the achievement of human specific labor, it is the product of material civilization and spiritual civilization, has the meaning of. Human society over obscuration, savage to civilization, slowly walked a long time. The ancestors are apes and carries on when the skins and leaves from a body, become aware of the cover body of the warm body, created the fruitful results of material civilization. However, beauty is human nature, dressed in people, such as gold in the Buddha, its role not only in the cover body of the warm body, with beautifying function. But say from clothing produce began, people have to color its life custom, aesthetic interest, hobbies, and all sorts of cultural psychology, religious customs, precipitate in the clothing, to build a unique spiritual connotation of costume culture. In the Chinese people's social life history, dress culture has a long history. It traces the origin of Chinese clothing, can be traced back to the Paleolithic period. Archaeological excavations show that as early as ten thousand or twenty thousand years ago, the upper cave man will use spicula tailor hide garment. Until five thousand or six thousand years ago Yangshao culture period, our ancestors began to settle in life, the agriculture, textile, appeared in the linen, hemp clothing production. Since then, invented sericulture, spinning and weaving, so, people's dress is based on agriculture, handicraft industry development is getting more and more complete and sophisticated. During the Warring States period, people thought to be active, commercial development, clothing also changes with each passing day. Sui and Tang after unification, economic prosperity, dress more gorgeous, shape is more open, thus becoming a peak clothing development in Chinese history. At the same time, the national influence on the clothes also constantly expanding and deepening, King Zhao Wuling hufuqishe, six dynasties pants pleat crotch and convenient North clothing prevailed in the Central Plains, Liao, Jin, yuan and Qing minorityPeople have entered the Central Plains, the Chinese dress evolution plays an important influence. China with its variety, exquisite costumes and enjoy the "dress kingdom" reputation, is the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in fusion exchange close cooperation, work together to create brilliant Chinese clothing culture. China apparel in the development of the changes of five thousand years, although the dry, but still there are rules to follow. From the style, under a coat and dress continued for two basic shapes, use both interaction and compatible. The Shang and Zhou dynasties ago, general and multi-purpose the coat and skirt, later Hu Fu, pleat, Ru skirt, is the of. Connect up to down "deep clothing" first appeared in the spring and autumn hand in, after the robe is produced on the basis of the. Patterns of animals and plants, and geometric pattern is most popular, the manifestation is: the more concise, summary, an abstract of interest; after the Qin and Han Dynasties, more neatly, balanced, layout strict norms; the Ming and Qing Dynasties, emphasize realistic image vivid, lifelike. Clothing color, ancient times are simple and bright, the later tends to be complex, coordination, color more stable and concise. From clothing structure point of view, mainly clothing (including upper and lower clothing), hat, shoes and other accessories hairstyle; from the occupation and gender perspective, mainly the official clothing, folk costume (man), women's clothing three types. However, in traditional Chinese costumes, and there are two notable feature is that it must be pointed out: first, after entering the class society, dress is not only people's daily necessities, but also become the ruling class, don't close, Yan and Zhao birthright, resolution or political tool. Xia and Shang, China began to form the crown clothing system, the Western Zhou Dynasty, perfected. Since then, the Chinese dynasties have attached great importance to crown clothing system, the imperial family, civil and military officials, the common people because of their different identity in the crown clothing style, design, color has strict difference. Although the specific provisions has profit and loss in the successive dynasties, basic structure but with different clothing to distinguish identity of class, have long followed the same, produced a deep influence on the later generations. Second, clothing also strongly restricts of traditional etiquette and constraints of the traditional ethics, especially in song and Ming Dynasty, because of the diffuse of Daoism and science, dress is formal, conservative, even a bad habits such as foot binding, torn limb. Obviously, ethics standard grade dress with traditional development to the clothing is a kind of limitations and obstacles, it and the progress of the society and the people to beautify the living desire is a departure from the. Therefore, in the modern rapid changes of social culture conditions, reform traditional clothing is imperative. The traditional Chinese costume change tendency after the Opium War, along with the decline of Qing Dynasty's rule, the influence of western culture unceasingly thorough, people's dress is gradually updated. As with the previous generation, the Qing Dynasty rulers also legal form to the crown clothing shape, decoration, color etc made strict rules. However, to the late Qing Dynasty, people began to break the old norm, such as the group of Python lines, four slits gowns, many have not according to the grade with. Ban gold embroidery, embroidered, fox civilian use, the rich family often illegal use. This phenomenon is most common in the south of the Su Hu area. Wang Tao "Ying creep magazine" contains: "the recent customs more luxurious, clothes hidden luxury, not up and down, and Hushang. Pidgin Chapman's son, a thick, namely the fox raccoon, showing off, really the so-called 'that their son, don't call it.'." And as the red hood, the one or two official by wearing, but to Guangxu years, Shanghai red pocket are everywhere, so the "Shanghai Xin Yuefu, red hood" cloud: "crimson clouds fly street, 10 and nine red hood. Although the red hood with Jin, donate ticket non Acura. Not the best, not small min. The staff side such as dog Dudu, the title is not light." Show that the clothing more than the phenomenon, the traditional feudal orthodox ideas and grade dress at this time has changed somewhat shaken, it actually predicts dress change trend began to sprout. After the Opium War, the Huayang mixed phenomenon Shanghai port port, concession. Close contact with foreigners comprador and merchant, the foreign staff, because of the influence of ideology and culture and way of life of the west, often follow foreigners, wear suits, trousers. While a number of foreign businessmen, sailor contact more prostitution brothel and have a "Narrow Sleeve leather shoes" western style clothing items, to use handkerchiefs, scarves, hand cage outside the ship. This effect of wearing tailor move although limitations in the city, and the affected area is limited, but there is a new phenomenon in Chinese society of unprecedented, the leading role can not be underestimated. P25-28
Catalogue of books

Introduction: the two sides of one
Custom and belief perspectives and values of
customs and beliefs of the study custom and belief from the perspective of several
customs and beliefs of the value and function of
A, the livelihood of the people: the folk custom
carriage car and boat traffic and travel
Civil material life magnificent picture of
alone the world clothing custom
open smooth diet custom
with grace: two, village regulations and common and into the world of
clan rhyme family custom
justice involved civil society
together about
the production circulation and to help customs
three, Min Li: colorful colorful life on
welcome the newborn child rearing custom
the degree of adult ceremony
marriage marriage system
for Chongwen and respecting the old
life funeral customs
four, the people entertainment festival ceremony: at 8
the colorful spring festival
lotus flowers and summer seasonal
Silver candle autumn holiday screen and
Mu snow and winter
five, customs and folk art: never obsolete public entertainment
language and folk oral literature
game between people And competitive by
local art and folk craft
folk music, dance and play
accent the local drama
six, belief in the gods: the ruler the personification of the creation of the world God

totem worship bless patron god said progenitor
God spread as the popular God
seven, ghost belief: the soul roaming
left about the concept of the soul of the fantasy
the Yin Yang and ghost elves framework
the secular life of the three Halloween
the soul and the supernatural imagination
eight, multi God worship gods belief: a practical expression of
natural worship of gods and the earth gods
as a people of City God
Madadayo smoke Vesta and Vulcan
congratulation everyone 爱拜 mammon
nine, belief in Witchcraft: reality and future prospect of
witchcraft faith is the source of civilization
Wicca is a product of
superstition type and the psychological needs of
exorcism illnesses and sorcery functions
traditional superstition and worship @##@ power culture The world customs and beliefs and are based on certain conditions and long-term relationships and. A lot of folk culture, it is not only a physical, tangible and can be directly touch the concrete object, at the same time, it is the concept of abstract form, invisible, can only sense and understanding. It can be said that the customs and beliefs are classified in the human culture deep structure level. It is the ancient and modern, because it is the individual in the social life in real long-term accumulation of life, also has the human population from generation to generation accumulation. This has created a situation in the concept of people's spiritual world based on, people always consciously or unconsciously follow the action travel difficult path. "Our national (customs and beliefs)" will start from the characteristics and nature of customs and beliefs. This book by Zhong Fulan.
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