Lu culture knowledge silk China

Date of publication:1970-1   Press: Jilin publishing Refco Group Ltd, Jilin Publishing Group   Author:Zang Xiaofei   Pages´╝Ü120  

(a) before the opening of the Silk Road at the central position of the Silk Road on the west side of the Pamirs, precious stones produced in long ago was transported to the shores of the Mediterranean, so here is the famous origin of the sapphire. In addition, in the southwestern Tarim Basin and Hetian jade, in order to produce known to the world, China since ancient times as the jade for quality of goods on the extremely attention. Therefore, before the opening of the Silk Road, the Pamir Plateau as the center to the west "Sapphire road" and the China mainland "Jade Road" has been opened. In addition, the fifth Century BC, historian, wrote Ciro Dodd in his "history" in one book: early in the seventh Century BC, the rise of the northern shore of the Black Sea nomads stayki family high metal civilization has reached the foot of the Serbs in the tianshan. By third Century BC, inherited the Steki Culture -- the Serb gradually develop and grow up. Initially, the nomadic Xiongnu in the Mongolia plateau in the absorption of the surrounding tribes and its sphere of influence eastward expansion, finally appeared in the Chinese native, Qin Shihuang in order to prevent the invasion of the Huns in 214 BC built the Great Wall. In the Qin Dynasty to increase the strength of the construction of the Great Wall, defeated the nomadic in Gansu Hexi area of about, and its drive to Central Asia along the Amu Darya, control of Plateau in Mongolia as the center, east to the Liaodong Peninsula, the area west of the Tarim basin. (two) the Silk Road "the Silk Road" is connected with a World Trade Road East, West Asia and the Mediterranean, through the "Silk Road", the Western civilization is the collision and integration of the first, and in a later conversation could stimulate each other, learn from the need of the development of national culture of nutrients from the the other system, makes the human civilization in the conquest and subjugation of development. In ancient China, people open up the "Silk Road" in the broad sense of a total of three: the first is the most important one is refers to the Western Han Dynasty Zhang Qian emperor life opened east of Changan, west of Daqin (Rome Empire), the trans Asian land passage. The "Silk Road" is the emperor in order to Central Asia about common fight against the Huns and sent Zhang Qian to develop. Since then, the large-scale management of western region, and North and south sides in the Taklimakan Desert opened a formal post road, and west to the Pamirs, linked with the Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia, the original road. With the development of history, the silk to the West convenient transmission of the "Silk Road" form, it is a bridge connecting Asia, Europe, Africa, the three large arteries and the east west economic, cultural exchange. Known as the cradle of civilization of the four ancient civilizations, Egypt, Chinese -- Babylon and India, as well as the birthplace of civilization of Europe -- Greece and Rome, are "Silk Road" of the connected area. This piece of land on the "Silk Road" is not only a straight line, and the formation of many of the radiate rays on this line, a ray which can be arrived at Constantinople (now Istanbul), and the other one is Iraq, then across the Syria desert, arrived at the east coast of the Mediterranean, Ann Pamela oak and other places, and can take the sea from here to Rome. In the Muslim first Umayyad Dynasty, the "Silk Road" from Cairo through the North African coast westward to the Iberian Peninsula, Spain and Portugal. China's papermaking from Baghdad to Cairo, one from Italy into Germany, on the one hand and introduced from Morocco to France and Britain, this is because "the Silk Road" as far as the Iberian Peninsula. The second is the "maritime Silk Road", it and land "Silk Road" famous, is also used to spread the China silk and other commodities and cultural exchange. In ancient times, the navigation technology in our country is in the leading position in the world. Through land exchanges with other countries in the world trade at the same time, China is by sea and African countries have established trade relations. This was known as the "Sea Silk Road" channel is in East China Sea and South China Sea two start line. The East China Sea route from Dengzhou since Shandong, across the Yellow Sea, arrived in North Korea, and japan. The South China Sea east of Quanzhou on route Chinese, Yangzhou, Guangzhou and other ports, connecting Southeast Asia, through the Strait of Malacca, arrived in Tianzhu (today's India Peninsula countries), the India ocean, Arabia ocean, finally reaching the Dashi (now Arabia state). This route to Chinese and South Asia, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Arabia area, connected via the maritime silk trade, these regions are then China silk trade center, is also the world's political, economic, cultural, religious center. This air route, from China overseas transport of silk at the same time, to play an important role in promoting mutual communication and the influence of material culture and spiritual culture between countries. The third is the "Southwest Silk Road", although it is not the top two famous, but also played a role can not be ignored and promote cultural exchanges between the East and the west. As early as in ancient times, people of all ethnic groups in the southwest to communicate with the outside of the exchange of products, has opened up a from Chengdu area, Yunnan, Burma, India, after Pakistan to Central Asia's business. Open up the road than the second Century BC Zhang Qian pass in the western regions of the land "the Silk Road" and the Southeast "maritime Silk Road" earlier, and land transport line in ancient China and Western Europe, southwest Africa shortest distance. "Southwest Silk Road" using mules for transport, later will have the famous Sichuan and Yunnan silk shipped to India, but also byHere transport to europe. The ancient "the Silk Road in the southwest" and today of the Sichuan Yunnan Burma, India, Burma road direction is the same, and in some paragraphs overlap together, it passes through in the history of the distribution of the six ethnic minorities, therefore, it can be said that this road is a ethnic relations corridor at the time. Through the introduction of the above, we can see that, "the Silk Road" is not just a simple line, but a trunk road based on formation of lead in all directions of the road with radiation. "The initial cause of the Silk Road" was accepted and put into use is that people need to use it to carry out the exchange of substances, but also with the dissemination of information exchange of material produced at the same time. In this process, we can also see the information followed a flow from the advanced civilization to advanced civilization tribe tribal order. (three) the Silk Road on the decline of the Silk Road, generally have the following reasons: the first is the year 1498, Da udagama found India ocean route, the trade channel gradually transfer; second is the Osman Empire occupied the capital of East Rome Empire, Constantinople, Europe and Chinese trading becomes more and more difficult, therefore, in this case, the Europeans have to search for new roads, so the sea slowly replaced the road. With the development of shipbuilding technology and navigation technology, maritime transport in safety and cost compared to road transportation has great advantage, the Silk Road thus became the local trade routes. After fifteenth Century, the Silk Road to the people, has become a historical memory has all gone, the past glory.
Catalogue of books

Historical stories about a silk road profile two Silk Road East and West cultural exchanges three silk road "mystery" four silk road silk road five legend of beauty and cultural landscape of the Silk Road @##@ six The Silk Road, is a trade route during the Western Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian to the western regions opened. It is starting with Changan, Longxi, Dunhuang (branch two, one in Dunhuang is to the northwest of Yumen Pass, one is to the southwest of Yang Guan), more Congling, all the way to the distant Rome empire. At the end of nineteenth Century the German geographer Leside Hofen in his book "Chinese" a Book of the first volume of the first time the road named the "Silk Road", since the word has been widely used to refer to ancient times between the East and the west two world trade route.
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