Western civilization

Date of publication:2003-02   Press: Academic Press   Author:Dong Xiaoyan   Pages´╝Ü247  

Polis and rational, Republic and legal, packet and unified, centralized and human rights, the enlightenment and revolution, utilitarian and improvement.
Catalogue of books

Before the words, the general concept of a civilization two, Western civilization and its characteristics in three, spirit and system: the first chapter states the traditional and rational first Greek city-state of second Greek spirit and rational second chapter Republic and legal first Republic - Rome's second section of the Rome law third chapter of packet and unified feudal first day the power structure in section second unified value system: changes in the fourth chapter the centralization of state power and human rights first section from grade parliament to centralization section second, human rights and humanitarian enlightenment and revolution, the fifth chapter of utility and improved day federal and democracy third rationalism and the first section of the sixth chapter second section of constitutionalism and rational experience science and concept of the world the second section and third section utilitarianism political system reform in the bibliography......
Chapter excerpt

The great thinker Platon Digest Greece (Platon, 427 ~ 347) as the immortal "ideal country", which is the discussion around the standard of justice connotation and expanding. Platon thinks, justice is in the state civil duties, remain in one's proper sphere. According to the understanding of Platon, a justice should be based on each person's innate mental quality training and education, work or responsibilities consistent arrangement with its ability and desire. The philosopher as intellectual, full of wisdom, are made of gold, so his job is to rule and manage the city; the military is brave, passionate, born from silver to create, their duty is to hold the arms to defend their country, auxiliary philosopher management state; and the producer level is how to control, but full of desire, are made from iron, its nature is engaged in duties gross economic activities, for the whole society for food and clothing. Because the people of talent, ability differences, different materials (that is, different qualities and abilities) people perform different functions, and each place, each do their job, have no attraction, is a kind of equality. Justice in this grade of equality can be achieved. Thus, the Greeks advocating the justice and equality, but on the relationship between justice and equality view, is restricted by different sectors of the living conditions and values. Athens most civilians to complete equality (number of equality) as the principles of justice, that since the citizens are free, then we should be equal in all respects, that is per capita average distribution of the corresponding rights. A few rich people emphasize differences in the way people of wealth and to draw, think different wealth, ability, moral people in the enjoyment of the rights of the city should be different, this is justice. The ratio of the justice and equality (arithmetic) justice, has been the focus of conflict and dispute between Greece a few oligarchs and most civilians. It is the struggle of the two sides, and promote the maturity and perfection of polis political system. On the justice and equality, understanding of the relationship between the mature is likely to be Aristotle (Aristoteles, 384 ~ 322). In the "ethics of Nico Marco", Aristotle inherited the law, the Justice (Gong Zheng) as the most perfect virtue. In the view of the sub public, justice is not the general quality, and associated with other virtue, because justice requires not only treat themselves to virtue, virtue is to treat others, therefore, a part of justice "is not a virtue, but the virtue", is the highest good. From this point of view, a Kung further thought, justice is universal, common and eternal. Admirable is, when the Asian male putting that principle into the city reality, reflected his political and ethical realism tendency. He thinks, equality and the ratio of number of equality of the two equality does not meet the "absolute justice". The right way is different from the reality, "in some ways to the number of equality; and others to ratio equal to the principle of", so as to embody the justice. He argues that the main field of concrete, the number of citizens participation equality lies in the City Council, judicial affairs, equality, which is based on the equality of citizenship; but because the citizens in wealth, birth, congenital and acquired, and the number of differences, in the allocation of rights and power should be consider the different ratio when this ratio, equality and fairness and justice. This is reminiscent of the contribution made to return statement. Indeed, in the real world, the eternal universal justice is always a principle. Abstract, absolute equality is also not exist: applicable to Aristotle as the representative of the concept of equality of the arithmetic geometric type and on the basis of equality and the principle of justice in different circumstances of thought. It is a necessary condition for the correct organizational social political and legal life. In the history of Western thought, the two equality has his disciples and followers, and in different periods of history and the principles of justice called combination, play different roles and functions. In nineteenth Century, the scientific development speed, impact on the concept of the world is more important. According to A.N. Whitehead, said in nineteenth Century, "faith comes from three sources: the first is reflected in the revival of religion, art and political thoughts of romanticism; the second is to open up the road to the idea of scientific leap; third is to completely change the human condition of science and technology." The three belief source has two related science, meaning visible scientific progress on people spirit world. The development of Science in nineteenth Century mainly due to four new concepts, namely all space, including vacuum places are filled with physical field; the material is composed of atoms, atomic concept applied to physics, discovered the electron and proton, applied in the biology found that plant cells and cell clusters; the principle of conservation of energy; energy conversion principle the. The nineteenth Century European concept of innovation also cannot do without these new concepts, such as Helmholtz said, "I think we have learned a lesson from the era of physical science, absolutely five conditions to respect the facts, holding the attitude of loyalty to gather facts, on the very skeptical surface phenomenon, in all cases to explore causality and assumes the existenceAll this is the place where, in this century and centuries of different." Especially the new concept and the biological theory of evolution (an organism) after the combination, effect on the social spirit is bigger. Since energy is constant, "means of production quantity is certain, so only a very limited body can use it. Fixed environmental control everything. Therefore, the scientific conclusion is the survival competition and natural selection." This conclusion into the social field, the original equality, freedom of the natural order is considered to be a fiction, since in the knowledge, intelligence, strength, toughness, skill, diligence and thrift habits, physical fitness, status and opportunities, there is a huge difference between people, so, let people have the freedom to work to improve their situation, the result must be a corresponding inequality. The state of nature and freedom egalitarian social order become a paradox here. "The reality is reasonable" principle of social norms. Competition, adventure, fighting for survival, Darwin (Chades Robert Darwin, 1809 ~ 1882) evolutionary changes caused by "in people's minds more than from any other scientific progress Renaissance science since regeneration." Survival of the fittest, natural selection causes out of view, the God creationism lost territory. Team and all creatures "common origin" theory, the "absolute human center theory" have hitherto unknown challenge. The theory of evolution and variation of organisms, so that people establish a world is dynamic development thought rather than a static constant, and the formation of the society as to the form of evolution development thought. Since then, the modified (Evolution) and Revolution (mutation) as a means of social development and the way, generally accepted by the world. The end of the nineteenth Century, the influence of Spencer's social thought by evolutionary theory. Hector Te Spencer (Herbert Spencer, 1820 ~ 1903) is a British evolutionist, positivism, was a founder of the European social organism theory. By Lamarck (Jean Baptiste Lamarck, 1744 ~ 1829) heuristic evolutionary theory, Spencer had evolutionary faith, was released in 1855 of Spencer's "principles of psychology", discusses his views on mind evolutionary history, published in 1857 in the magazine "West Min J" on the "progress": the rules and reasons of it, then lay the theoretical foundation of his general theory of evolution. In 1859 Dahl meaning "matter" Park origin published, confirms and enriches the general evolution theory of Spencer principle and rule. Subsequently published in the "principles of sociology", "ethical principles" and "a person to the country" a series of research papers, Spencer discussed his social evolutionism. Spencer from the angle of epistemology, the world is divided into "phenomenon that circles" (the knowable) and the unknown world (the unknowable). Where that our senses can feel, to our reason put forward many of the most difficult problems required to solve short and tangible representation, is knowable, belongs to the world; behind the tangible representation of the existence of a religion called of God's essence is, is unknown, which belongs to the unknown the world. Science is the study of the world, play a role in the world is a common evolutionary principles and general rules of evolution, namely, from simple to complex, from uncertain to determine, from homogeneous to heterogeneous change process. This change is a gradual process. Any organism is through the mutual cooperation between the different parts, a common activities. Each part of interdependence, mutual support, and jointly promote the evolution of the organism. Society is no exception, it is through social molecules or social structure of free activities, to achieve social the superorganism of cooperation and balance. Spencer further think, social molecular (or individual) activity following the principle of "survival of the fittest". "People should follow the external world, with survival environment to adjust, change yourself, first, change their ideas or understanding, change the natural tendency or habits, including changing racial stereotypes or understanding, as well as the inherent natural inclination or habits. Not easy, but must change is allow all doubt....... A society to another society, a nation to another nation, is nothing but a more social than a society without the social; a can adapt to their environment than a nation cannot adapt to its national survival environment." Spencer's theory of social organism, the theory of evolution and the nineteenth Century pandemic phase, caused strong repercussions in society. In nineteenth Century, evolutionary ideas explosion makes people "the essence of the world, people and people's custom made systematic reflection." This kind of reflection, refraction to the field of social ideology, is the utilitarianism prevails. If we make a society (or national) as a civilized unit or system; then the spirit and institution respectively belong to two different levels of sub system. Culture is generally believed that the society as a cultural system, its structure is divided into three aspects: material, system, spirit, the three aspects of the three forms of culture. For the majority of cultural philosopher, cultural form in turn change in the course of history, and in a certain period of time in the form of the dominant or in some form of sign. This is undoubtedly correct. But this argument also often make people have some misunderstanding, thought that a single form of culture can be in the care of no other culture forms of social structure, individual to provoke a level or the whole burden. Historical facts show: no matter in which people to sign of a certain age, various cultural forms are also play a role, promote the comprehensive situation, each other in various forms of interconnected exist. For example, because with vigour and vitality of the European Enlightenment of Western Europe in eighteenth Century, known as the "age of reason". However, the "rational" is the symbol of the eighteenth Century, Western European social economy has made substantial progress, the British began to machine production as a symbol of the industrial revolution. As historical and cultural theory pioneer Guizot said, a civilization can be divided into external and internal components (the former refers to the natural environment, material from theElement, social relations and institutions, the latter including religion, art, literature, philosophy, science and so on), but in general, they are mutually balance, promote each other. Civilization (Culture) the motive power of the development of partially attributed to the effective interaction between them. Indeed, spirit and system transformation in the Western civilization, a civilization's inner core, an external belongs to civilization. If the change is system of a striking red line, runs through the history of civilization, the spirit of innovation is like a partly hidden and partly visible blue line, which restricts the development of civilization, but also between the red line and blue line are often intertwined, both mutual influence is jointly promoting the development of Western civilization.......
Media attention and comments

The general concept of civilization, civilization view is put forward by the eighteenth Century French Enlightenment thinkers, relative to the "barbaric state". As the name implies, is bright, brilliant civilization. Generally, when a national (or regional) appeared in life and produce a text, were they entered the civilized society. The concept of civilization provides a measure to judge the social development. However, the concept itself is uncertain, because it is itself a product of history, the connotation and extension of civilization is changing with time of change: as Norbert Elias (Norbert Elias) wrote in "civilization" the opening chapter of a Book: the concept of "civilization" refers to is completely different things: technical standards, etiquette, religion, customs and the development of scientific knowledge and so on; it can mean both residential status or gender and way of life, can also refer to the legal punishment or food cooking; careful observation of words, almost every event is to 'civilization' or 'uncivilized' the way. So, to use a few words to include 'civilization' all meaning is almost impossible." The general meaning, the connotation of civilization and culture concept is similar, but since it is two words, somewhat difference. From the etymological perspective, culture (Culture), derived from the Latin "Cultura'', refers to the" cultivation, culture, education, development, respect other civilization "; (Civilization) derived from the Latin" Civils'', "city state, citizen, national" mean. But the exact meaning actually is what, at present academia has not yet conclusive, understanding also each are not identical. The Soviet Union scholars: civilization mainly represents a form of matter, such as sickles and plough, train and airplane, bathroom and toilet material civilization achievements; culture is mainly manifested in the moral consciousness and the corresponding activity, reflected in the humanistic philosophy thinking and artistic creation. German scholars of the civilization and culture made a strict distinction, that civilization belongs to the material, technology, objective things; culture belongs to the spirit, belief, subjective. America scholar Huntington (Samuel P.Huntington) that civilization and culture involves the way of life of a people, civilization is the enlargement of the culture, is the most extensive cultural entity. To hold the same views the French historian Braudel (FemandBraudel, 1902 to 1985), he put the civilization is considered as a space, a cultural field, is a collection of features and phenomena in the field of culture. The famous British historian Toynbee (Amold Joseph Toynbee, 1889 ~ 1975) also thinks, culture is the essence of civilization. Culture is "the soul of it, blood, essence, core, essence and miniature", he in Ikeda Oku and Japanese scholar in the dialogue, even to see religion as the human civilization, development of the "source of strength" and "base", think "civilization depends on the basis of religious quality". In short, about the nature of civilization and the relationship, and the cultural Public opinions are divergent., unable to agree on which is right. These different views, different thinkers are related with the times, cultural and academic background and research method. They are a reflection of the essence of the civilization. Different interpretations of "culture" and "civilization" concept, in fact is a reflection of the national consciousness and the cultural spirit of different. These, to our understanding of the essence of civilization in a certain significance. We think, civilization and culture and there is no clear boundaries, it is a way of scholars to observe and evaluate the overall condition of the human history. From the view of human history, culture and culture before. Civilization is a progressive state of human society, the emergence of the settled life and texts produced marked the beginning of civilization. So American scholars Morgan (Lewis Henry Morgan, 1818 ~ 1881) the human origin of social development can be divided into three stages: savagery, barbarism, civilization. The sum of the generalized culture refers to the material and spiritual wealth created in human history and society practice, such as material culture, spiritual culture. Yi culture refers to the social ideology and adaptable system and organization. The narrow sense of culture refers to the social ideology, or social ideology. This three layer culture in a certain sense of "civilization" concept has cross. Civilization is a kind of cultural groups, according to the characteristics of the human culture can be divided into different civilization, as according to the physical characteristics of the human into different races. Civilization is the most advanced standard, the most extensive human population division. It is the common objective elements, such as language, history, religion, customs, rules and regulations to define.......
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