Wang Jiezhi, male, Anhui Lujiang, 1The 986 year old. In 1986 graduated from the Graduate School of Jilin University, received a master's degree in literature. In 1994 went to the Russian Moscow Pushkin Language College visiting. The professor of Nanjing Normal University, director of the Institute of literature research, comparative literature and world literature professional doctoral tutor. As the vice-president of Jiangsu Comparative Literature Association, society of foreign literature of Jiangsu province Secretary
The silver age was a spread of culture 1 culture in the modern transformation of the 2 of the Marx doctrine and the penetration of the 3 in the western thoughts and Chinese traditional culture between the 4 areas: integration and interaction between the 5 cultural groups two silver age of religious philosophy 1 Russian religious philosophy origin and prosperity of the 2 "new religious consciousness" and "the secret of anarchism" from "3" to the "roadmap" idealism problems 4 "God sent" religious philosophy three silver age literature achievement 1 multivariate pattern and prosperity 2 stars matched 3 novels Poetry Innovation and development of the 4 literary theory and criticism made four silver age of dramatic art in 1 century turn of the theatre 2 dramatic achievements 3 drama innovators contributed five of the silver age of 1 music music culture landscape: active of 2 classical music around 3 modern melody Yang 4 ballet, music and other six silver age art 1 aesthetic needs and aesthetic concept of the double evolution in late 2 the Peredvizhniki and twentieth Century painting Pioneer 3 "art world" and the "Russian Ross Artists Association, "4" blue roses, "Diamonds" J "and" the donkey's tail "of 5 twentieth Century second ten years of avant-garde painting seven silver age culture bibliography colophon @##@ afterglow In nineteenth Century and twentieth Century at the turn of the last thirty years, Russia has experienced a large scope, profound ideological and cultural movement. The pilot is a new poetry tide, followed by a comprehensive innovation is driven by the new poetry prose, including drama, literature, music and painting, the whole field of literature and art. Aesthetic consciousness changes, art began to have new meaning. At the same time, many kinds of Western trend of thought of new social philosophy into Russia, collide with the traditional philosophy of Russian philosophy, causing unprecedented prosperity and the unique philosophy of Russian religious prosperity. Prosperity of art and philosophy and promote other humanities field transformation and creation. A lot of talent has been given the excitement restless era russian. This is one of the most brilliant period in the history of Russian culture. This time is called "the silver age". Call this era as the "Silver Age", but it is borrowed from the cultural history have a concept of. The first half in eighth Century BC, Homa after the earliest ancient Greek poet Hersio de once wrote a masterpiece: the long poem "works and days". The poem said the gods of Olympus, first created human beings called "the golden race", the human beings are "silver race", "bronze race", "hero races" and "black race", five times corresponding to this is the golden age, the silver age, the bronze age, age of Heroes and the iron age. Five times extraction, classification often later was used in cultural history, the history of literature. As early as in ancient Rome literature. During the reign of Octavius known as the "golden age" of ancient Rome literature, this is Virgil, Horace and Ovid, the poet's the time to peak. After the death of Octavius two hundred years, namely Rome empire period, is the silver age of ancient Rome literature "". In this era of literary achievements mainly Seneca tragedy, 菲德鲁斯 allegory poems, Peter Ron Neue J and Apuleius's novels, Maher's inscription on etc.. It is not difficult to see that, called the era of literature in Rome as the "Silver Age", seems to illustrate its literature achievement is slightly lower than the "golden age", but also quite good, quite impressiveness. People in twentieth Century, is the first Russian writers, critics, it is to use the concept of "Silver Age" in this sense, try to use it in a literary era and its characteristics to mark the "golden age" of literature in the nineteenth Century. As we see the current material, evaluation, research in Russian literature in the early use of "golden age", "Silver Age" concept, is the famous Russian religious philosopher, writer and critic Wa Rozanov. He wrote in an article published in 1909, "Ross and Gogol": Tolstoy Harmony, Dostoevsky's thought is more complex, more important. However, Pushkin and Gogol's language is still the first flow, not beyond the. Due to perfect this maximum, their language was Tolstoy, top think Toy Jef J Ki and other silver age of the Russian writer who diffuse, long and heavy work had not been, never the kind of bronze monuments like charm, eternal and certainty. Pushkin and Gogol after all is the golden age of Russian literature. Obviously, Rosanne Andrianof believes that the "golden age" and "Silver Age" that existed in nineteenth Century in Russian literature, the former to Pushkin and Gogol as the representative, the latter by Tolstoy Harmony Toy Jef J Ki as the representative of si. This is in the study of literary history "Silver Age" of the concept. "Silver Age" concept for another use in studies in the history of Russian poetry. Study on the poetry history, some Russian person that era is illuminated by the poet Pushkin, Lermontov's name is called the "golden age" of Russian poetry, and the poet A A Fett (1820 - 1892), A Ni Maikov (1821 - 1897), A Pi Polos (1819 - 1898), A Mi Gemcginnikov (1821 - 1908) as the representative of the the poetry era, the silver age of Russian poetry "is called". These researchers apparently think, in nineteenth Century the Russian poetry, there is a "golden age" and "the silver age". The "Silver Age" in two different ways, are not used to refer to the end of nineteenth Century, early twentieth Century the literature and culture of the times. In the early history of Russia's experience unbelievable, intensive culture is rising (the first is the prosperity of philosophy and poetry) era called "people the silver age in Russia," Twentieth Century outstanding thinkers and cultural critic Nicola Baer 嘉耶夫. To confirm this point.Contemporary Russian scholars, "the silver age poets destiny" a book editor Semyon Bhavan and I Semib Ratova. In the preface to the book, the two editor clearly wrote: as Berdyaev said, the beginning of the twentieth Century, Russia experienced a renaissance "true; for another definition of the age -- 'silver age', according to contemporaries Sergei Makovsky saying his, also belong to him". But what is the two editor did not explain Makovsky said in one article, but not specifically identified Berdyaev is what the occasion in the first "Silver Age" in reference to the culture of the times at the beginning of the century. The silver age in 1996 in Moscow published poetry ":" a book editor Kobita Beck clearly pointed out: "the name of the silver age was first proposed by the philosopher Ni Berdyaev, but it is precisely specified for use in Russian modernist poetry, Gura Otrup, is" the Russian poetry 'silver age' "(1933 after the advent of a paper)". However, Kobita Beck also did not specify where Berdyaev is first put forward the concept of "silver age". To be sure, the Russian scholars obviously not unproven, stands. In addition, we do see, Berdyaev in the "end of the Renaissance and the humanitarian crisis" (1923), "the new Medieval: about Russia and the European destiny ponder" (1924), "the beginning of twentieth Century Russia's spiritual revival and magazine" (1935), "the Russian Thought: the basic problems of the Russian thought nineteenth Century and the beginning of twentieth Century" (1935), "self understanding: Philosophical autobiography trial" (1949) and other works, with vivid style of writing at the end of nineteenth Century, early twentieth Century described the "rare, can cross over, flash era", the image outline the general process and characteristics of Russian culture movement this time, very aptly convey the "extraordinary, creative talent" historical time unique spiritual and cultural atmosphere, and call this period of Russia's "spirit", "cultural renaissance" or "Renaissance". Berdyaev alternate use of these three concepts, presumably because he realized, as the fourteen to sixteenth Century the European Renaissance is the revival of culture, spiritual revival, late nineteenth Century to early twentieth Century the Russian experience is also a relates to the field of the ideological and cultural spirit and movement trend. If you say, "Renaissance" (P P E C C C for our society) concept more connected to the European cultural history, history of literature, then, "Silver Age" (E C C when p is great for arm's e kappa) concept is a development from the Russian cultural history, literature history the process itself is proposed. From the large exposition of Berdyaev can be seen, the Russian Renaissance or the silver age of Russian history, is the last special, from modern to modern transformation era, a spiritual awakening, active thinking, cultural promotion, create prosperity. Before this time, is the nineteenth Century Russian classical culture (the rationalism, positivism dominated) and Literature (with realism as the mainstream) age; after that, in domestic is the Soviet culture and literature of the era, in foreign countries, forming a unique Russian expatriate literature and culture. Berdyaev to a series of works of the late nineteenth Century to the October revolution of this era of Russian culture and literature, as well as the term of these views, the proposed works by the use of, for the later culture and literature researchers learn or use. Berdyaev, Ye Zamyatin, Ernie otshu Pu, Semyon Makovsky, Bo Zaitsev and other Russian writers and critics, have in their works in the "Silver Age" reference at the end of nineteenth Century, early twentieth Century the literature and culture of the times. Of course, their focus and discussion focusing on different. In Moscow and St. Petersburg "such as Zamyatin" (1933) in the text, in the different effect of the two city in the development process of Russian literature, that literature has experienced a "golden age" of realism and symbolism "Silver Age"; while the equine Chaikefusiji "in" the silver age "Barnes, Mountain" (1962) a book, is the age at the turn of the century as a special stage of the process of Russian cultural history description. However, they wrote at least one thing is the same, namely: the silver age refers to the end of nineteenth Century before the October revolution of literary or cultural era. Contemporary Russian experts who agree with this view of literary history. In the published by a number of literature researchers. In 1995 twentieth Century, "Russian Literature (Reference)" frontispiece of a book, an article penned by L A Smirnova's article "found the silver age in literature art". Paper wrote: "'silver age literature' concept, widely spread. From the time that, in this period, and even less than thirty years from 1890 to 1917." Here, the silver age limit is very clearly drawn out. Published by Ni Wa Bannikov edited, Moscow Education Press 1993 poetry anthology "the silver age of Russian poetry" one book, a total of sixty poets and poems. In all except a few poems written in nineteenth Century eighty in the first line, the rest were written between 1890 and 1917. The time limit on the silver age of editor's mind is also very clear. In the western academic circles to study the history of Russian literature, mostly by Berdyaev and Russian scholars point of view, the turn of the century to the October revolution literature known as the "Silver Age" literature. For this age limit, western scholars have different views; and for the lower limit of the age, views are almost the same, which is that most of it ended in 1917. For example: wrote the British scholar Harry Moore and Albert Parry in their co authored, spread widely in the western countries "Twentieth Century Russian Literature" in one book: "nineteenth Century is the golden age of Russian literature, twentieth Century (1917) is the silver age."
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