European civilization fifteen

Date of publication:2004-06   Press: Peking University press   Author:Chen Lemin   Pages:279   Words:250000  
Summary

European cultural traditions in the tradition of homologous and shunt, criticism, have abandoned, but critically in innovation. Since fifteenth Century the scientific thinking and practice, the concept of freedom and democracy from embryonic gestation to germination and generation, this road in the spirit of "history" can be visible before the eyes. Europe is not just a geographical concept, it is a concept of culture. European culture is broad and profound.
Author brief introduction

Chen Lemin, born in 1930, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher, former director of the Institute of European studies. Author of "De Gaulle", "the idea of Europe's philosophy of history", "Mrs. Thatcher", "changes in Eastern Europe and the reconstruction of Europe".
Catalogue of books

Sixth the position of first opening second Greek -- Europe's "spiritual home" in Rome the rise and fall of one thousand years about fourth from the Rome Empire to the feudal period fifth speaking in medieval European history to modern times -- about seventh -- about the Renaissance to modern religious reform eighth radiation eleventh words "Enlightenment" Ninth speak English, method tenth European civilization revolution of twentieth Century European (a) twelfth twentieth Century in Europe (two) thirteenth European civilization and world history lecture fourteenth Ou Zhouwen Ming and Chinese culture "autonomy" Fifteenth end
Chapter excerpt

Second say Greece Europe "spiritual home" today we mainly speak greek. Speaking of ancient Greek culture, requires a combination of a story. The last is about the source of the Greek civilization. The foundation of Greek civilization is a native of the ancient legend, myth; geographical and cultural aspects of Greek and ancient Greek civilization and a source, is the mesopotamia. From the two rivers in this area to the Nile, the ancient Greek civilization to a great resource. That time is also a great migration period, personnel's flow are very frequently: the Greeks to each local mobile business, the local people also to Greece flow, resulting in the fusion of culture. Now if you look at the art of ancient Greece sculpture, then have a look of ancient Egyptian sculpture, there are many is similar, from which can be seen the origins between them, it is for this reason. The language is from the two rivers from the past is past, from the Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician roughly equivalent to modern Lebanon, where the letter only consonants, by the Greeks added some vowels, which later Greek letters, the Greek word actually is the European languages ancestors. The Hebrew religion, is also the past from Mesopotamia area, therefore the ancient Greek culture with Asia Minor, North Africa are quite deep, while Greece is in business to the local immigration, which in the early time is called the Greek colonization. The Greeks have continued to flee, the Greeks could not go out, because Greece is some small islands, it has a traditional business. Greece has many city states, is "city", the city and our city is not the same, a place is so small, a set of measures for the management of its own. The so-called "polis politics", "polis democracy", also is the common election chief executive election, heads, and the Senate, and the senate. Why talk about the European modern democracy, modern culture is derived from the Greek, I am afraid it is a reason. The Greeks had geographical and historical conditions have the "polis democracy" conditions, many city states even not democratic. Of course, their political system the performance is different, Aristotle wrote in his "political science", investigated 150 polis political system, and then wrote "politics". The city-state system is one of the characteristics of the ancient Greek city-state, political, the city is also the history of ancient Greek history, this is One principle runs through it all.. From the beginning, that since the Greek, Greek culture, that is to say from about 1000 BC, had the city form, which is a great feature of Greek civilization. Rule the city is sometimes the tyrant, the tyrant is appointed the Lord, make his personal rule. Also called executive, or called the king, but the head is elected, now we called is a slave owners elected. If we use class view, slavery, the landlord system, city head can not slave owners elected? They do only the slave owning democracy, but it is an origin of democracy. I earnestly hope that the students to read a book, is the "history of the Peloponnesian War" thucydides. The author is the famous, but also can be said to be the second famous historians -- the first is Herodotus -- in this book he paraphrased in about 500-400 years before a magistrate -- a speech. He is a person can not fail to mention we study of Greece, this book the quoted him in the first year of the war, it's the same Spartan war in Athens, in order to pay the soldiers died in Athens as a eulogy -- this eulogy I want students to have a look, there are Chinese book, but it is quite good -- his eulogy is the first year of the Athens and Sparta battle victory, the war lay everywhere, is said to have tens of thousands of people dead, tens of thousands of the dead can not simple, is used as a primitive weapons. By the end of the year, according to the usual habits and customs, to choose a person to the dead as a eulogy. This year held a "funeral" ceremony, because Athens defeated than it tough Sparta, a tribe a large coffin, inside the body, a total of forty several tribes, and then to choose a person to do a eulogy, you press the. This eulogy is fairly long, gave me the impression, as if is now the president or chairman of the consultative paper published. He put the "democracy", "legal" summed up, he spoke of the "democracy" is not from others to imitate, is a part of their life style, only for others to emulate, imitate others rather than athens. Eulogy inside also spoke about the "Athens spirit" -- "adventure", I feel this "adventure" is "aggressive" means, do not reach to the spirit of never give up, brave, adventurous spirit, the spirit of sacrifice. He also mentioned the "national honor in the eulogy",When Athens was the Greek city states in one of the largest, and is a model. Athens and Sparta alliance defeated a Persian so big, the Persian is amazing, is a hegemonic power. Athens and Sparta temporarily combined, called a couple of war, namely, the Persian war, the defeated the Persian foundation, Athens developed. The Spartan because of its civilization is relatively backward, only know blindly, and cultural backwardness, no democracy. Therefore, in this eulogy Pericles inside, no name points out, Athens is the "democracy", and another country, i.e. Spartan tyranny. Chairman Mao had a word, "don't say greece". Chairman Mao is criticized those archaism, but we are now in Europe, of European civilization, including democracy and composition of European civilization, can not fail to mention the greek. Hagel has a word, as long as we mentioned the Greek, we Europeans have a "home feeling". How to understand his words, this eulogy Pericles is worthy of reference, at that time, the fifth Century BC, can say that, now look so realistic sense, can not be said to be the wisdom of ancient greece. He also mentioned in this article the eulogy, the Greeks are beautiful, but not the feminine; the Greeks is brave, but not foolhardy. It is a grand and magnificent, the eulogy of rhetoric. Finally, he used a long length, to express condolences to the bereaved parents, the family of the deceased, to honor the dead, call the Athenians to unite, a new battle. The administration has a lot to do with the eulogy, is relatively short, this is the most representative, model is the western literary theory of them, from which we can understand the ancient Greek spirit is what. Hagel has repeatedly stressed that the Greek spirit is the freedom, is magnificent, beautiful, this thing can help you understand this sentence. Of course, the Greek culture is not only the speak of these, Pericles was concentrated expression on it. For the ancient Greek cultural convention can be divided into three stages: the first stage is from 1000 BC to 700 BC, the period of Greece started their own civilization, the history before largely based on legend, there is what I said before the great migration times, and in Mesopotamia the Hebrew civilization contact. By 1000 BC, the Greek civilization is the size of the. This period has formed the two largest city, one is Athens, a spartan. There are many other small states, we are seeing now is the Athens and Sparta, a democracy, an autocratic. The second period is from 700 BC to 400 BC, this period is the brilliant period of Greek civilization, the Greek civilization to mature, a lot of outstanding people like Pericles, philosophers such as Platon, the most important of this period is the development of philosophy. In Pericles, Athens civilization further development, prosperity. In the sphere of thought appeared in the "sophist", some old man don't quite agree with this translation, as the word sophistry impression that gives a person is not stir three minutes, so they advocated to translate it into "magic gentleman". Future generations is why it's called the Sophists? I think this is summarized by later generations, people think that help people are not philosophers, they only meet in the oral tongue debate. In fact, they should also be regarded as a natural philosopher, Greek culture first concern is the natural, natural concern is how to produce. The ancient philosopher Telles world is how to produce, is the element theory, which is generated by elements of the. Sophists is starting from here, to study nature, to explore the nature problem. At that time, Athens has indeed to the very freedom of time, thought is free, town talk of the streets, organizing various seminars, casually. Gradually, the debaters have become unreasonable. Three points, the truth aside, specifically to debate and debate, so people call them the sophist. In these "magic gentleman", appeared the first philosopher Socrates our. Socrates and a little magic, the most different is his pursuit of the truth, not for the debate and debate. Of course, in the second period, the debate with the prevailing ethos of Athens is a great impetus for the Athens democracy and freedom, it is produced in the process of philosophical debate. In ancient Greek, philosophy and science is not divided, philosophy is the pursuit of knowledge, to seek wisdom, and science at that time can not be divided. The ancient Greek appear all kinds of literature and art, poetry, drama, drama is also generated during the debate. You know there are several comedy several tragedies, is this period produced. Of course, the most important representative figure in philosophy. And Socrates the same period in China is Confucius. I think Socrates and Confucius have the same place, for example, he says that you don't put things you do not know is said to know, with Confucius words is "know what one really understands, admit what you don't know, is know." These sages, visible in the discussion of some problems, is likely to have it. What is legitimate debate, what is unreasonable. Three, there is a common standard, common psychology. Socrates did not leave any works, are his students Platon recorded his left some words. In the second period, there are two characters -- Socrates and Platon in philosophical circles. In this period, also has the very complicated phenomena, such as the Athens democracy has become a model of democracy in Greece, but it now appears to be very rough, and even can be said to be very primitive, it is a kind of "direct democracy". I think it is not a modified democracy, with the instinct of considerable: people say. Five hundred citizens assembly may decide to Socrates's life and death, regardless of his opinion Is it right? Right. By this time, the Athens democracy has a bit of alienation. But is the Athenian democracy, Greek style democracy, it gave the European civilization plant a good seed, but it is in Greece could not grow into a very perfect. Socrates's death is a tragedy, died of Athenian democracy, and democracy is the source of European civilization, this is a contradiction, also is dialectical. Now we want to understand the thought of Socrates, only by his students.Latour records. Platon wrote a lot of "dialogue", is mainly to Socrates, and his fellow students, friends talk, some students to ask questions, answer some of Socrates, Socrates asked a student to speak. Then he can be short or long. When I read these books did feel that this represents a very liberal style, students don't agree with his words, he said he did not agree, he will speak his truth. Platon has a thing called "蒂麦欧", says there is a 蒂麦欧 Socrates asked what is wanted, he said he wanted two things, one is thinking "Solon, Solon reform" is earlier, can be said to be the time of Greek civilization just prosperous, a chief Archon at Athens officer. He said Solon's reform, he is listening to a friend of his grandfather said, then he said his grandfather's friend in Solon's reform. "Solon's reform" is really great, use two words to sum it up is the "internal democracy, foreign aggression". With our own words, Solon think we should put our own affairs well, terminate the slave burden. "Solon's reform" in 640 BC to 558 BC, including the following: launched a "solution to eliminate the negative," slavery under the slave debt (very heavy, do not play, then was rioting), the slave slave of money owed, in they are standing at the door of the house of a brand, how much money owed to write, record debt card called "". The first reform Solon is these "debt" brand pull, there is no personal servitude, slavery, abolition and land related business debt, to prohibit the export of grain, and so on, this is in order to develop its agriculture, but also in foreign trade. Foreigners can get Athens citizenship. I think that at that time is very perceptive, in true Greeks say how much less, many are migrant population, from Asia. There is a slave to personal safety, the kill, the security issue on the agenda. Another is the abolition of the aristocracy of the hereditary privileges, instead of according to the property to the power distribution. The other is the establishment of the Senate and the 400 Council, 400 people Council put things to the Senate to processing, people put the two called "the two anchor" Solon boat, from which we can see some prototype of representative. The last one is very important, pioneered the "jury court", invited the citizenship of people jury. To this period of time around fourth Century BC, politics, law, literature, art is developed, so that this period is the most prosperous period of ancient Greek culture. The third period from 400 BC to ad era, it is to Rome occupation of Greece, the Greek into a Rome Province, Greece is conquered. During this period, there are two things. An event is the conquest of Alexander, Alexander is the great crusade. Alexander is a relatively backward city in northern Greece -- the king of Macedon, people are very tough, in culture and civilization are far less than the athens. But Alexander with his force, not only the Greek mainland conquered, but also the expansion force, to the east of westward expansion, the east to Asia Minor, Persian, right up to the north, the South has been hit India. We found that the fourth Century BC, the Greeks knew Chinese, but we can't find many records, the oldest record is fourth Century BC, in ancient literature is mentioned in the "seres" word, the word is "silk" mean, silk, silk country, this may the ancient Greek literature is mentioned for the first time China. Because of his call to India, who went to the Chinese is possible, of course, is mainly a lot of strange and eccentric legend, said he saw "silk country" inside the wool grows on trees! Also said that the "silk country" people do business very crafty. There is a very good teacher Alexander, he is Aristotle. When Alexander the great martial arts is highest, also his sandwiches very developed, he inherited the various system of ancient Greece, especially the Aristotle plan a lot of things in the culture and education. Originally Greek education is come very naturally so down, at that time Aristotle, the education system there is a promise of something, a spirit of the Greek inherited. Aristotle says you can do the farmer, or an official, or to do business, but education is most in need of value. Also in Aristotle the hand inside, the division of education began to emerge, such as Chinese law course, logic course, animal science, mathematics, geometry, meteorology. So the third period of the first half of the more than 300 years, BC conquest of Alexander during this period, a period and later was very prosperous, the development momentum of Athens was good. Alexander from India back to Babylon after the battle, ill suddenly died, only 33 years old. Later Aristotle would continue to do his knowledge, his education to become a master, after since Socrates philosophy into. This time the Greek nation has not much, I think there is a reason that Athens democratic system is not all, not all Greece such. Another is its democratic institutions are short-lived, often is the system of democracy from the tyranny of King -- is the rotation, a period out of a tyrant, into a dictatorship. The tyrant break down, rebel, noble and overthrow him, into a "democracy", it is not a usual thing. In the early fifth Century BC, Rome have been up, in the era before long, more and more strong, and later Rome Empire annexed Greece, the Greek became a province, the ancient Greek history is over. I say this is a very very thick lines about the ancient Greek history, now the people of Greece began to pay attention to it, for instance to write a history of Greek philosophy, write Greek history, but the history of thought and philosophy are not getting. But there is no one to write a relatively complete, integrated, one can understand the "Greek history", because it is too hard to write, what time from the beginning is hard to find. The thought of the ancient, for example Homa epic, as we all know, but Is it right?It is this Homa? Of or Public opinions are divergent.......
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