The book covers Chinese monarchy, the prime minister, Chinese Chinese of imperial examination system, Chinese Confucian culture, Buddhist culture, Taoist culture China China Chinese folk culture, fourteen chapters.
The operation of second chapters. The first chapter Chinese monarchy, the monarch of a title two, the throne inheritance three, the monarchical power Chinese of saisuke system, the system of prime minister two or three metric three provinces four, two, five, six office of the cabinet system, the third chapter China Military Office of Imperial examination system, the imperial examination system of a formation of two the imperial examination system, perfect three, the imperial examination system evolution of four, the abolition of the imperial examination system in fourth chapter China Confucian culture (on) a, the rise of the Confucianism, Confucianism two preliminary development of Confucianism and the philosophers of science three, four, five, the establishment of Confucianism orthodox Confucian metaphysical Confucianism six, meaning seven the end of eight, the traditional Confucianism, contemporary new Confucianism has fifth chapters China Confucian culture (below), "a Book of songs", "two", "three of the" four, "book of changes", "five" and six "book of filial piety," seven, "the four books" the sixth chapter China Buddhist culture, Buddhism in India two, the emergence and development of Buddhism in Chinese spread and evolution of three, the basic doctrine of Buddhism, Buddhist four main regulation five, the typical seventh chapter China Taoism culture, Taoism development, channel two The basic belief education three, Taoism and health four, the legend and faith China folk culture eighth chapter ninth chapter of Sino foreign cultural exchanges (on) the tenth chapter Sino foreign cultural exchange (under) the eleventh chapter China literature twelfth chapter thirteenth chapter fourteenth chapter novels, prose poetry of a China: historical and cultural city directory of two: Chinese existing the world heritage list
Digest Palace: the name by the emperor dear try to Fengtian palace or Mandarin temple, also known as the "final imperial examination". Jiajing, Wanli emperor has no longer visit examination, only to the cabinet proposed test validation. Exam time beginning in early March, eight years after a scheduled in March 15th. Test only cewen a, the marking, third days of announcement. As time is tight, marking the official concern only a few of them outstanding examination, the ranking. The candidates list called "a list", referred to as Jinshi test, divided into three: first a three are respectively called Zhuangyuan (or Hall element), the second, third, give into the soil and; second a first name Chuan Lu, giving scholars origin; Chapter Three gives the same origin. (2) the Ming Dynasty Palace Museum selected announced after a empowerment, first a champion awarding Hanlin Academy Xiuzhuan, Bangyan and Tanhua granted editing. Two, to participate in the Imperial Academy Sanjia Jinshi examination, when referred to as the "Museum", to say "shujishi". Shujishi from "Shangshu · policy" in the "often shujishi", Zhou Dynasty refers to government officials in handling daily affairs. Ming Chengzu when start the business, but it was not until the Hongzhi emperor by scholar Xu Puzou please and tends to be sound and complete. Imperial Academy to choose, Zhan Shi Fu Guan high senior one classes, called learning. Three years later, leaving those with outstanding achievements in the Imperial Academy as a compilation, review, inferior points as to matter, Yu Shi guan. Because shujishi powder house is the academician, and the pope when non Jinshi not into the Hanlin, non Hanlin not into the cabinet, the north and south two Beijing libushangshu, assistant minister and official department official, non Hanlin without. So, shujishi is seen as a "reservoir". Visible, shujishi is much higher than the average in the soil status and prestige. (3) stereotyped writing stereotyped writing is a special style of Ming and Qing Dynasties, the two generation of imperial examinations, also known as the "eight aspects", "text", "when the arts". Because of the problems from the "four books" "Five Classics", also called "the five classics," the four books ". There are two explanations for "stereotyped writing": first, the full text of the essay, 承题, say, one question (questions than), a (virtual ratio), femoral (than), femur (than), strand (beam ratio, also called big knot) eight parts name. Second, since the shares, shares, shares, after strand four paragraphs are each composed of two strands, for a total of eight shares. Either way, one thing is certain, that is the stereotyped writing dull form, content of dead. Must be from the "four books" "Five Classics" in the proposition, not according to their own ideas to write, "saints", so the tone of imitation. Each set of 700 words per sentence (Qian Long), there are a number of quantitative. Each sentence begins and a common statement. Changes in Qing Dynasty imperial examination system of the Qing Dynasty in 3 families in Shunzhi two years (1645). In the system there are gains and losses inherited the Ming Dynasty, one of the biggest change is the increase in the "test before". (1) small scale that boy try, commonly known as "test"". The test content and the same. Admission quota according to local style high, depending on how much revenue population. Laboratory test, pilot county government and three stage. County trial held in February, the county magistrate examination. The examinee newspaper resume, and five unprofor. A total of four field test, the first two tests and two, after examination by solution. Fu trial held in April, the prefect of the. A total of two field test, the first field is a field, applicants can participate in the school test; second games for the second examination, to rank the candidates themselves, whether in the field test. College of science, at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty around, the prime minister to the Daoist political. To study for the school of Yong Zheng, prime minister, to political science. The hospital try in political science government site of special places (Kao Peng) held by the political science, and the local executive common examiner. Test two, first is the field, second field for reexamination. (2) measures the examination examination examination with the Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty are similar, but more difficult than ming. Examination by the emperor sent special official chair, held in the provincial capital, the examination room is specially built, from the walls to the seats are special, the examinee in "clothing line", room and board are provided by the governments. The examination discipline is very strict. A total of three field test examination: first try the "four books", "Five Classics" three questions, four questions, candidates can choose one by. In the annotations to prevail, form of stereotyped writing. Second field on an article, sentenced to five road, Chao, Gao, chosen for a table. Third test the, history, current affairs policy five. Admission examination is high in Qing Dynasty according to the style of writing,The population size, Ding Fu weight allocation, but also increase or decrease. Qian Long nine years in Zhejiang, Jiangxi 94, Sichuan 60, while Gansu is just 30. As the quota is too little, very difficult to test, and since Kangxi eleven years -- 5 in the ratio of 1: Deputy list, in that "Juren" bang, vice list are called "vice Gong Sheng", then can directly enter the examination. But there is still a long test not to die in the examination hall, who. Huang chapter 99 is not selected, the lantern book "100 year old field". Special recovery test list: one is positive, vice list announcement released two respectively; is are writing original, namely from sixth CIS write to the last one, and then from fifth to first write down. The five name "Five Classics". The announcement time in Yin, or e day, Yin tiger, E dragon, so called "pop". Because when the osmanthus season, also known as "Gui list". The Qing Dynasty on the new tree will re examination, to review whether justice. The first unified to Beijing re, later renamed the provincial examination. It also has the losers. (3) held on to the rites and those second years in March. According to the distance the tolls, Yunnan, Guizhou Juren can also use the pony. Try to test the three field, the temporary sent chief executive and with examiners presided over. Admission quota is not fixed. Generally 240. Also according to the provincial distribution quota, generally 20 people take workers, Sichuan between 2 and 4. The Chinese say "Gong Shi", the announcement said "apricot list", the first name of Hui yuan. Try also has the side table. One cannot say vice Gong Shi, can not participate in the palace, but by the official department awarded the lower office. Palace presided over by the Emperor himself, then held in. Beginning in May four time, after Qian Long in April 21st. Examination officials accompanied the emperor dozen, called "read roll officer". Time for a whole day, or even can be extended to the next day. Siddartha is good at thinking. At the age of fourteen outing caused great change in his attitude towards life. He saw the farmer was naked to the waist, sweating, breathlessly ploughing; cattle neck Le rope, wounded and bleeding, but also by the farmer whipping; there are many bugs ploughed soil, birds fly to peck. While the nobles do it for fun. This curtain cruel tragic scene caused his thinking. At this time, he not only felt the pleasure, is bitter, shocking, turn back to the palace, sit and think. Later met look old and clumsy man groaned, patient, cry procession, also listen to the groom said these are common things, suffering the fate of all people are unable to get rid of. He is aware of the vast world, the endless sea of tribulations, prompted him to consider a problem -- how to escape the real world of pain. However, the father has the right, he Du had "Veda" will not solve the problem. So, in the infinite sadness and anguish, finally in the North outside met a monk of the Salmonella (ascetic) from Salmonella, heard a free "life, old, disease, death". He register profound respect, the germination of the idea of monks. King Suddhodana son cut off the idea of monks, in Siddartha sixteen years old when he had married him, and built a "cold, heat, temperature" three palace for him. His wife is the princess lost indra. But these have failed to bind the heart of Siddartha. He was only thinking about how to help all the people free from pain. At the age of twenty-nine, his father decided to Siddhartha did not attend, leaving his wife, abandon the throne, shave his hair and beard, dressed in robes monk. Since then, find a teacher, the pursuit of the pain relief and the truth of life, the prince became a real salmonella. Siddartha insisted on penance, diligently unremitting, found that six years of austerities, vain, but he does not get rid of truth austerities. So, in the falgu river washed away six years of fouling, accepted the Munv Xian deer milk, nursed back to health, strength, to the lotus pippala east end body, mindfulness, made a vow: "I today if not for the supreme Bodhi, would rather break the body, not the end of the seat." After several days of a few night (or forty-nine days, or seven days and seven nights) of the cudgel one's brains, one night I saw stars shine, like the spiritual transcendence, past, now, future temporal and spatial barriers in front of us has ceased to exist, audio-visual infinite, the heart like a flat mirror, greed, anger, delusion, no trouble, all doubts completely clear, suddenly awakened all truth, truthful knowledge in reality and permits a supreme enlightenment. From then on, people called him the Buddha (the Buddha), namely the truth of consciousness. Also known as Shakya Muni, namely the Shakya sage. Disciples of Buddha, the Buddha called him. Shakya Muni attained Buddhahood, he began saying their religious activities. In the next forty-five years traveled around, on both sides of Ganges RIver, until the age of eighty at kusinara that outside the city of SAL trees nirvana. All the same he contacted the people are affected by the heartfelt belief, the compassion salvation spirit civilization with thousands of years of the world. Every lunar April 8 Buddha's birth day, twelve month eight Buddha into Tao day, February 15th Buddha nirvana, China mainland Buddhists have held a grand law, to commemorate, honor the ancestors of buddhism. The development of Buddhism Buddha in 2 and one hundred years after the death of Buddhism in the primitive stage, to teach the inner unity, religious doctrinal understanding and practicing precepts are basically the same. But with the passage of time and social conditions are different, the Buddhism formed many factions gradually in the rapid outward, and experienced the Hinayana Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra three period of development. To the early thirteenth Century, with some Islamic invasion and esoteric Buddhism itself, Buddhism in India basically extinct. (1) the Hinayana Buddhism have taken place in the first division in the fourth century BC about second times before and after the collection of Buddhism, known as "the fundamental division", formed a respect for tradition, conservative old rules of Theravada and keeping pace with the times, reform and innovation of public department. Both groups have different views on the teachings, Canon, even to the leader have different understanding. In that, the Buddha is a historical figure and not God, its greatness lies in his idea is correct, exquisite noble personality, wisdom. The public department says, the Buddha with limitless life and boundless power, have great magic power, is a supernatural God, the historical Buddha Buddha is not physically, but to educate the masses can show flesh. Later, the Buddhist internalDifferences intensified, in the first Century BC to first Century, Theravada seven division, became the twelve school. At the same time, the four division mass, become the eight pie. Known as "branch split at the end of". This is the history of the development of Buddhism Hinayana Buddhism period.......
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