Although Chongqing municipality directly under the central government for ten years, but it is very old; although Chongqing is at great speed in the long, Long Zhuang, but once it is very simple and low, although Chongqing day by day became Liang Yan, but it was rather heavy undertone remained in the memory. When the building style and people's lives become more and more similar, cultural character of the city and the city like air and water quality will become as important and valuable. History and reality is so complex, such as touch, Chongqing cultural hand surprised the city growth, hand surprised those worth keeping things in this speed drive passed away. The surprise is also complex and beautiful, because they are not being astonished at the hands and feet and stop, stop thinking and action. A part of this set of "old Chongqing" is their photographs in this effort. "Old Chongqing" series a total of ten photographs of the old gate, respectively is "", "old house", "old street", "the old pier", "old map", "advertising", "old old records", "old business", "old style" and "old money". They are from a different perspective, in the city yesterday, involving municipal changes, the evolution of politics, economic development, urban life, context transfer inheritance and so on, especially on the personality and the evolution of the old Chongqing, the root and source of spirit and soul of the old Chongqing, the old Chongqing, trying to arouse the reader with expression attention, and the reader's journey. The author of the series and the editor, are good candidates in the cultural relics, books, archives, publishing, historical and cultural studies and other aspects of the work of many years, has rich practical experience, and expertise of academic accumulation, and as much as possible in a word processing on popular, vivid, accurate. More than 2000 historic photos used many books, is first published, signifying its precious and rare. Chongqing is a world historical and cultural value of the city, for this, the editor of the series and wrote the "old house" in the process that does not move. This is not a government cultural arrogance, but follow the "real history is" principle accurately treat the history of Chongqing concluded, according to the principle of making the past serve the present is the construction of Chongqing culture. It is a pity we always think their own cultural resources is not thick enough, in fact, is our present efforts are quite a distance from the target. Happy is a municipality directly under the central government at the beginning, the author put forward to make Chongqing construction and adapt to the economic center of the upper Yangtze River's cultural center, cultural construction of the long-term goal, has been more and more accepted by the public, becoming the city's planning and operations. In this sense, "old Chongqing" series of photographs published, is indeed a gratifying honorable things.
In the vast Bayu earth, little scattered stars like dotted with thousands of old city fortress. In the face of these half destroyed and rain mottled ancient ruins, incomplete and a vicissitudes of the former camp, think that a symbol of war in ancient China sword hand, Ming, fluttering banners hid the sun, war-torn battlefield, ear of Judah heard once she drum; remember this smoke Willow Bridge painting, and Feng Xiao, bustling marketplace, and the poor people of the town, I was busy before. We will pass through millennium from here, open the dust laden past, find its trace, the source, will it, leaving the shadow, with readers.
Tang Yeze, male, was born in Chongqing, 1959 was born in October in Leshan, sichuan. Eat bran, a township, carry a gun (when a few days "militia"), refined steel (done half the founder), business (three days after selling mutton string), wrote a few articles (but no face, the only listed) not publicity. Now at the Chongqing Shapingba District Committee Party school, a teacher of ear.
The general ordered the Chongqing urban construction of the "nine open and eight closed" the ancient city of Chongqing Chaotianmen east gate and the bluish green hillside gate gate and PETN door Chu and Jin Zi door door and the Phoenix Gate South Ji door and gate and Dingyuan gate Jintang town near Jiangmen and Hong Ya door thousands of fellow gate and west gate Fotuguan history the ancient city of the ancient city of Chongqing Jiangbei state for the ancient city of Tongliang and home city of Fuzhou City Chungju city of Wanzhou the ancient city of Yunyang in Fengjie city of Wushan city and the Dachang ancient city of Wuxi the ancient city of Qianjiang is dotted with ancient village Castle fishing town Baidicheng Huang Hua City Power City rock city day dragon city 崖城 Wanshou copycat Lai Tan Zhai other postscript
Illustration: Chongqing city and the surrounding area in ancient times human beings have lived and multiplied in recent years, only in the north, the South Bank of the Yangtze River area, found nearly ten Neolithic site. According to historical records, Chongqing initially called the Ba, Ba country are; Qin Ba for Berkshire legacy, set Jiangzhou County; later renamed Dianjiang, Baxian County, Chuzhou, Yuzhou, Gong Prefecture, Chongqing etc.. Kawahigashi Masaharu, as the economic center and important military, Chongqing has always been the county, road, road, house, state, city government, history has played three times for the capital (Bactria country Ming Yuzhen regime in the Warring States period of the late Yuan Pakistan, both during the period of Anti Japanese War, the national government "capital"), also had three times was listed as a municipality directly under the central government (during the war of resistance against Japan for the Executive Yuan City in particular, liberation is a municipality directly under the central government in 1997, and became one of the China four municipalities directly under the central government), therefore has always been maintained regional big city status; from all over the country, also generally maintained a medium-sized city scale. The status of Chongqing in the political, economic and military and Chongqing's geographical location and natural environment inseparable. Chongqing is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, East Sichuan Basin, at the confluence of the Yangtze River and Jialing River, shaped like a peninsula, roughly east-west, North and tip; East, south of Yangtze River, north of the Jialing River, the West and the land. Water from the people in Sichuan, Chongqing is to go through the back, since the Jialing River Road North to the north around the west along the Yangtze River, Tuojiang, Minjiang River reach by Sichuan, Sichuan Chengdu Zhi arrived, from the road has Road West to the south of Chengdu, also have the road to Guizhou, Yunnan. Therefore, here is not only a commercial convergence, materials and land and sea terminals, more control in East Sichuan, Sichuan, southwest of the barrier between the town of military importance. Here since the Three Gorges and mountain water is urgent, more steep gorge beach, pass is heavy, dangers everywhere, the city and the three facing the water, one side of the mountain, if coupled with the high wall, wide grain, is an impregnable city, easily defensible. Even tough Mongolia cavalry, once it was blocked for more than forty years and not in inches, broke the Mongolia army to shun plan straight from the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty Ling'an Jiangdong, the Southern Song regime following aWhen the. Below we from this talk. The Southern Song Dynasty three years (1236), Mongolia Army School of Sichuan Chengdu people, and its fall near the county, was wantonly murder of prey. The soldier is not the construction of East Sichuan, but also to strengthen military defense facilities around the start of. Sichuan has two military town, one is the Chengdu, two Chongqing. Built in the Chengdu Plain, without insurance can observe, since ancient times, attack broke. Chongqing is surrounded by water on three sides, one side backer, easily defensible. So, Chongqing became the focus of the strategic defensive. In the Southern Song Dynasty Jiaxi about two years (1238), Peng Da Ren Sichuan system side to make and know mansion in Chongqing. He had served in Mongolia, aware of the Mongolian army, so he began planning for the construction of Chongqing city. Some people do not agree with, concerns project, laborious and expensive. Peng Daya said: "no money, make money, not the person, all can make a reason." In the city of Xian four years (in 1240) the basic built, there are at least four gates, because according to the records 在四 Peng door vertical stone, saying: "a certain period of Peng Yazhu this city, as the fundamental of West sichuan." But in the "history" and "history of the Song Dynasty", but referred to the Chongqing Hong Ya, thousands of fellow, Zhen Xi, the uptrend, Taiping five door. Only the specific location of some doors are difficult to determine. Peng Da An City, is in the rush to be confronted with a formidable enemy when, just in the old city wall repair and reinforcement heightening. Its the old city, is generally considered to be the period of the Three Kingdoms on the 严筑 lee. But the time distance three has a history of one thousand years, and after the war the vicissitudes of life, even the city, should already dilapidated, difficult in zhi. According to the record, the Mongolian army in the Southern Song Dynasty Jiaxi three years (1239) -F half year twice besieged heavy - Qing, Peng Daya is only in early second the city built a good. In historical records, Peng Da fortification "Phi thorns, take the slings and arrows of", explains its fortification project is completed in the side dozen the side building case. It is difficult for us to imagine Chongqing only half the wall can build new withstand almost ever-victorious Mongolia cavalry, so it is questionable. According to the analysis, Peng Daya is in the original version of the building wall brick wall is covered on the outside, and improve the city military facilities. That is to say, after Li Yan, Peng Da, there must be historical loss of load of fortification. The early liberation has unearthed in the Pacific near the door some "song 淳佑 Yi Sidong (XI) kiln bricks" the words of the Song Dynasty bricks, Yi Si Chun woo five years (1245). This not only proved that Peng Daya and his successors used bricks, and prove that the song city walls at least have been extended to the exit of the. Because Peng Da fortification "no money, make money, do not put a man to see", accountability is severe, then by supervisors to impeach, that the "risk" 贪黩 fallax, variable "cruel", into the Gucheng, became Peng Da Lian, cut rank. But they give a high evaluation to the Peng Yazhu Chongqing City, think of to fight against Yuan Shu army for forty years, Peng Da not. Indeed, Meng Yuanjun repeatedly invaded Sichuan, were in a Chongqing state line by the stubborn resistance and can not move, even the Mongol Great Khan also died in the city of Hechuan fishing. Therefore, after the death of Peng Daya was forced to the posthumous title of "martyr", people are standing temple worship him. This is them as comments, "the hearts of the people. When the Three Kingdoms built Chongqing city is Li Yan. Li Yan, the word was, at the end of the Chinese people in Nanyang. For the beginning of Yizhou and Liu Zhang, Liu Bei after return of sichuan. Liu Bei I died at Baidicheng wrote, he is together with Zhu Geliang to accept one of the ministers appointed, to protect the inside and outside the military, Liu Zhen Yongan (Bai Dicheng) specializes in anti wu. Shu LITE-ON four years (226 years) spring, Li Yan moved jiangzhou. Then the Jiangzhou City, because of population growth is about a small town more narrowly, the Western Han Dynasty Berkshire Taishou but Wang said, Gunji Jiangzhou "relief side risks, all tired in the house. The number of fire damage, and incompatible. Fang water in more than five hundred ". The Eastern Han Dynasty is a period of time even to the county government moved to the northern city (now the north of the Changjiang River). From the military point of view, the main building on the peninsula Jiangzhou City side tip and the Yangtze River Valley, Lu Luyi was against adverse look down from a height, defense. So Li Yan expanding city, built around sixteen miles of walls. A length of the Han Dynasty, according to Yang Kuan, "China successive scale test" of 414 meters, sixteen. 6624 meters. The big city is mainly westward expansion, the city wall built to Chongqing Peninsula ridge. At that time, there may be only two gates, a dragon, a tiger, should from East, west two door is the name. In addition, in the north of the city of grain to repair bin city. This basically is the main obstacles in eastern part of Chongqing Peninsula topographic are included. However, this wall ruins nor in the archaeological survey found trace, so it is difficult to determine the specific location. In Li Yan before about 540 years, the history books recorded the first in Jiangzhou fortification is the Warring States period, Zhang Yi. Zhang Yi is very famous in Chinese history, is one of the representative figures of the strategists in the Warring States period. It is said that he is a disciple of Mr. Su Qin GUI, and classmates, Qin Huiwenwang after being used for phase, as the rise of Qin feats. In 316 BC (Zhou Shenliang Wang Wunian, Qin Huiwenwang, Yuan nine years), the king of Shu of his brother Ju Hou, Ju hou to Pakistan to seek political asylum, Ba Wang did not have the ability to protect him, and Qin to help. Qin Hui Wen ordered Zhang Yi and Sima rate army of Shu. Shu, Zhang Yi see Ba rich, also sent troops to the country, the king of Ba Ba also perish in the captive. This is really eternal lessons cited werewolf chamber. After the death of Qin Ba, 在原 Palestinian ruled the Berkshire, in the original Batu home Jiangzhou County, as the county where the rule. A major event in Jiangzhou Zhang Yi do, is to build the Jiangzhou city wall. However, this thing in the historical records of only four recorded words, namely "Huayang · Ba Zhi" in the "Yi Cheng, so the details can make nothing of it together". But according to archaeological excavations, found in the Warring States to the Western Han Dynasty, the ancient pottery and tiles in the peninsula tip area, where the inhabitants had. It was speculated that, Zhang Yi had built around this city north of thousands of fellow door a little even a word Watergate east line, and a major part of the ridge east of Changjiang River side. If we push forward, the Chongqing wall is only indirect inferences. Because Pakistan no recognizable words passed down, but in Outland, the Central Plains books rarely remember the deeds. We all know that BA Manzi's story: Palestinian civil strife, cranberry son Xu 楚三 City please Chu troops fighting, afterwards spread refused and Chu City, with thanksThe. The three city, I do not know what city, but certainly should be near the border town of chu. Not only that the city, when the walls. The border town and city, as Pakistan Jiangzhou, how can is undefended city? However, at the time of Batu (including Zhang Yicheng) actually built where, actually has not truly understand. Later there are three versions, one that is built in Chongqing Peninsula, which is the popular notion, but one thought in the peninsula tip area, also said to the middle point in the peninsula; the two is that in this Jiangbei mouth, namely the north shore of the Jialing River opposite the peninsula tip, not less experts hold this view; there is in Baxian West or northwest, found in some ancient records. But these claims are quite large, with speculation ingredients, the real situation how, to further strengthen urban archaeological excavations to prove. After the city built in Peng Daya, and once the Chongqing urban construction history of the largest fortification works, this is the early Ming Dai Ding fortification. According to the Qing Emperor Qianlong Wang 尔鉴 repair "Ba County" records: "the early Hongwu of Ming Dynasty, due to the site command Dai Ding masonry rock, high ten Zhang, Tuesday 千六百六十 feet seven feet, Huanjiang pool, gate seventeen, nine open and eight closed, like Jiugong gossip." According to the analysis of this record, the following conclusions can be drawn: first, the fortification was "the early Hongwu of Ming dynasty". Ming Taizu Hongwu is Zhu Yuanzhang of the year, a total of 31 years, both the words "first", should not be out of the top ten years, otherwise it should be said that the "Hongwu. Dai Ding for the official "command (that)", this is a military garrison commander in chief. According to the "Chongqing Wei Ming Zhi unification" is recorded in the Hongwu six years, then put ting Ren also only in this year. Therefore, the specific time and the fortification, should be in the Hongwu six to ten years, which is between 1373-1377 years. Second, the city is "building due to the site", visible in the original old (should be built by Peng Daya city) based on the city scale shall not raise, what a big change. Third, is "Building Rock", visible after fortification no stone, brick masonry wall most just. Fourth, the city "Tuesday 千六百六十 feet seven feet". According to the test prove generation quantity, a foot length of 0.3265 meters, the city perimeter of 8687.2 meters, compared with the Li Yan fortification, long 2063.2 meters, which is 1.31 times the length of Li Dai fortification fortification length. In geometry, the circumference of a circle every increase n times, the area will increase N2 times. That is to say, if the city is a round, "a city" area will be "1.72 times to Li City". Of course, Chongqing is not a perfect circle, historical records and textual research, length is not very accurate, so does not increase so much area, but the increase is positive. It can be described by Lee to put the fortification size are different, the one thousand hundred years must have significantly expanded. Fifth, "Huanjiang pool", the three have the ring of water, in addition to the west wall has been built on the water, into the watergate. Previously, some may from the riverside is still a little distance, such as the Jialing River side of the chu. Sixth, "seventeen, nine open and eight closed". There are nine doors open, the other eight are "door is established and often close", and its purpose is only to say "like" Jiugong Bagua from digital ". The earth building is most particular about "Feng Shui", this story is very widespread: if a place for many years did not Juren, Jinshi, people do not say that education is a problem, but blame what has prevented the feng shui, so to build a tower or repression, or a bridge to compensate. On the contrary, it is only considered a good feng shui, not easily earth so as not to damage the. The modern Chongqing lesson plans, originated in the Western church in the city and outside the high ground or pass build churches, and the people who were merchants objected, not considering the military loss risk to outsiders, but only by the Chongqing "dragon" is accounted for as an excuse, destroyed, fear of breaking the Chongqing Feng shui. The ancients built walls, is a natural defense the enemy, if the city be like the legendary "Jiugong Bagua", let the enemy come out not to go, that is good! But the walls only four Wai, impossible to like complex matrix, so can only from the digital image. Want to Dai Ding is a superstition geomantic omen of person, or is believed Mr. Feng Shui story. In this we now seems ridiculous things, but ancient people feel very creative, but in later records repeatedly mentioned it. Repairable so many but closed not open, also does not have a practical use; and some are too close to the door, there is no necessity of existence, is completely harass the people and waste money, a waste of labor cost (repair gates 比修 walls more complicated). Then from the military sense, the door is the weak part of defense, many means weak links, in order to strengthen the defense and dispersion of forces. So this is not a good practice. Also because of this, the eight closed door gradually closure, only names.
This book is an introduction of Chongqing local history books. The author in reference to the large number of writings of others at the same time, also into the understanding and study of their own, the book also used many published the publication of photos, one one failed to indicate the source, also please forgive, and thanks. This book by Comrade Feng Qinghao points and outline, and provides many data, by Comrade Tang Yeze and complete the writing pen. Because of time constraints, limited data, many localities have also failed to carry in the spot investigation, so the shortcomings and mistakes can hardly be avoided, but also hope a person with breadth of vision put forward valuable opinion, if have the opportunity in the future, as the earnest revision. The book writing process also get many people around to help, here also extend my heartfelt thanks!
"Chongqing old photographs, old gate" published by Chongqing press.
Culture @ 2017