The dragon and the China culture

Date of publication:1992-11   Press: People's Publishing House   Author:Liu Zhixiong Yang Jingrong   Pages:327  
Preface

In the West Bank of the Pacific Asian continent, China stand erect in the world with its vast territory, has a long history, splendid culture. Before 1700000 years ago, human beings have appeared in this land. For thousands of years, the diligent and wise ancestors experienced go through untold hardships, exhibition one's ability and cleverness, created the splendid ancient civilization Chinese. However, I do not know since when, animal &mdash a strange shape, ecological magic; — long, appeared in the early Chinese culture. Since 7000 years of the Neolithic age until today, dragon, almost throughout the history of cultural development in the long and complex, and in the fields of religion, politics, literature, art and other plays an important role in. This phenomenon is rare in the history of human development. In the ancient Zhizhuo Neolithic art image, people find a variety of dragon like animal figure; in the splendor of the Bronze Dragon is in different poses and with different expressions, dazzling elated; whirling in the ancient mythology, features the Chinese gods, ancestors with the dragon; Qin and Han Dynasties, the emperors in Longzhong itself, from the dragon and the feudal dynasty the indissoluble bound; people will be long as auspicious incarnation and cloud seeding rain gods. Effect of China dragon culture is so wide, until today, we also used &ldquo describe a strategically situated place; ” mountains and majestic, a scene of bustling activity with “ ” describe the spirit of high spirited; &ldquo ” lively and vigorous flourishes in calligraphy; describe style chic; “ Dragon and Phoenix ” describe a happy marriage, like other idioms &ldquo, full of vigor and vitality; ” “ &rdquo, walk with majestic steps roaring dragons and tigers; “ ” &rdquo, “ Dragon Tiger meet the eye everywhere; … … dragon dance, dragon boat racing is enjoying the festival, Dragon symbolizes the noble and solemn &hellip in architecture; … long not only everywhere the culture of the Chinese nation in the remote, but also to East Asia, South asia. China is the hometown of the dragon. Characteristics of dragons that strange and its important position in the China culture aroused great attention of many scholars at all times and in all countries. Some people think that, the dragon is the Chinese nation and culture of “ ” beginning symbol; some people think, long “ the people of all ethnic groups is China fusion historical testimony; ” “ some people think, the dragon has that kind of mighty hard, march forward courageously and be fearless spirit, it is the Chinese nation's ideal the symbol ”; also some people thought, the dragon is the symbol of the Chinese nation's ancestors, the so-called “ ” “ Dragon ” comes from this, this argument in today's times in the Chinese around the world still has certain cohesion. By contrast, is suspicion and resentment people hold on dragon. “ be what painting? Hehai what calendar? ” this kind of question to propose the romantic poet Qu Yuan in the Warring States period, thousands of years has been haunting. When the dragon was used by monarchs, the Dragon doubt added antipathy. Mr. Wen Yiduo said: “ … … our memory of the dragon and Phoenix, only the emperor and empress Fu Rui, and they and their palace and clothing decorative motif, ‘ ’ to sum up in a word, they are ‘ the God ’ and ‘ Print-Rite & rsquo; marker. … … do you remember the restoration and the Dragon flag inseparability, you will forgive me see ‘ and ’ two words and not strike the eye and rouse the mind problem. The ”The idea in people criticize the Dragon represents. If we calm analysis will find, praise, praise the Dragon had little historical basis, and the long suspected, denounce and contains political factors and emotional color. The dragon, is a mystery China in culture. As the hometown of the dragon, can not tell the Dragon sequence of events, which can not but make each Chinese ashamed. Be beyond all doubt, origin and understand the essence of dragon, delineates the formation, evolution and development of the dragon vein, proved the dragon in the Chinese ideology of clear connotation, status and influence in Chinese dragon culture, has a very important and far-reaching significance.
Summary

One of the characteristics of the dragon is the most typical characteristics of the various parts of the body with a different animal. This phenomenon to be very much puzzled by ancient and modern scholars, and put forward various hypothesis. In the early Eastern Han Dynasty, Wang Chongji pointed out: “ secular painting elephant, horse tail, the horse, snake, like. ” · "Lun Heng; virtual article" dragon horse and snakes are animal, but not a class, how are they, as a whole? But Wang Chong only with the dragon as a “ snake, horse, Ming Yi ” a band, he apparently did not have the answer, but to avoid talking about. Mr. Wen Yiduo explained the complexity of the image of the Dragon said: “ about totem does not merge, the dragon is a serpent. The snake's name was called “ Dragon ”.
Catalogue of books

Sequence words — chapter the origin of the dragon, the definition of — research status about the origin of the two dragon, dragon, the dragon has three cultural and historical background, the original four Dragon type, prototype and meaning five, the original dragon commonness and evolution model of the second chapter the formation of the Dragon, dragon formed with — two, the dragon form the cultural and historical background, the formation of three long four, long five, long the connotation of meaning of the third chapter long course —, the evolution of the image of the dragon, the Dragon two Western Zhou era meaning and the evolution of the image of the three, the Eastern Zhou Dynasty dragon and the meaning of the evolution of the image of the dragon four, Qin and Han Dynasties the meaning and the evolution of the image of the Five Dynasties, the Sui and Tang Dynasties of the dragon, dragon six and &ldquo ” ichthyosaurs; multiply and add & mdash lines seven, Song Dynasty painting theory and the song and Yuan Dynasties, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the dragon eight times nine, dragon dragon; — the fourth chapter of the nine sons of the dragon dragon and religion — establishment of ancient witchcraft, Babel in long er, rain witchcraft in dragon three, dragon in Chapter fifth dragons and political &mdash, long Yu; in two, the Emperor Dragon three, up to the dragon's monopoly rule table four, Ming, Qing emperors of the Dragon Five, the dragon is the ancestor myth sixth chapter long and painting, literature, folk festivals, the dragon and the painting — two, dragon and literature three, dragon and folk festivals take
Chapter excerpt

One of the characteristics of the dragon is the most typical characteristics of the various parts of the body with a different animal. This phenomenon to be very much puzzled by ancient and modern scholars, and put forward various hypothesis. In the early Eastern Han Dynasty, Wang Chongji pointed out: “ secular painting elephant, horse tail, the horse, snake, like. &rdquo ("Lun Heng; · virtual article" dragon horse and snakes are) Department of animal, but it is not a class, how are they, as a whole? But Wang Chong only with the dragon as a “ snake, horse, Ming Yi ” a band, he apparently did not have the answer, but to avoid talking about. Mr. Wen Yiduo explained the complexity of the image of the Dragon said: “ about totem does not merge, the dragon is a serpent. The snake's name was called ‘ Dragon ’. Then one in this snake totem group (Klan) merged, absorbed many other of every hue totem group, the serpent that accepted animal legs, a horse's head, Wa O, deer horn, a dog's paw, fish scales and shall be … … so they become we now know the dragon. ” Wen's statement was widely suspected of the scholars. Mr. Chen Shouxiang pointed out that: “ there are some and dragon irrelevant animal can also may have as a totem conditions, they all be roughly the same and those related with the dragon's object of our analysis in the distribution range and quantity, what reason to believe that the ancient Totem Tribe in many people, only select ‘ long ’ the animal to fusion and evolution? This evolution was so steady, so can be traced to the ancient, in a variety of Animal Totem Tribe to know in advance the Dragon constitute only select objects to marriage and the war, this is unbelievable. ” Chen proposed an alternative hypothesis, he thought the “ (the dragon body) this option is for the wide use of &lsquo primitive agriculture in China; phenology calendar ’ results. ” however, the ancestors of why many related animal phenology calendar of local image mosaic Jackie Chan such a complete and strange animal image? With the concept of yin and Yang from ancient communication world concept corresponding to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, dragon and Phoenix integration image from the Neolithic Ichthyornis lines. For the first ridge north of “ waterfowl Title fish ” and Yan Cun stork fish tranchet pursues “ ”, Shao Ming Lian was keen to point out: “ Yangshao culture in respect of Ichthyornis concept, can be regarded as the initial stage of later generations of Yin Yang theory. … … bird and fish connect Yangshao culture in graphics, should represent abstract philosophy of yin and Yang. ” we know, fish is one of the original dragon, and bird pattern is the Phoenix prototype; evolution from fish to the Dragon grain pattern is completed in Shang dynasty. The dragon wall image found in jade, interestingly, between the dragon and Phoenix are retention relationship is the title, just by the bird Title fish into dragon bite ” “ Feng, this is because the long position in respect of the animal in high merchant. The other is often the combination of wind DRAGON FENG Dalong small, relic which Neolithic birds title of the fish. If the collection is now in the Taiwan Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Shang Dynasty dragon 衔凤 Pei (formerly known as “ found Pei ” Feng), a huge, huge beak recurved, head; crested on V a long, thin body, the crocodile shape, progenitor angle, a foot, bow mouth are meshed shape). The unearthed again the tomb of Fu Hao Yin dragon 衔凤 Pei (formerly known as “ parrot ”), Feng body fat is huge, run the shape; crested on V 一祖 angle mouth dragon. Mr. Na Zhiliang said jokingly; “ the bird may be dragon bite the pain, like a leg to escape. ” in fact the dragon mouth wind Pei in Phoenix are put on airs, no bite, pain like panic. Of course, the dragon and Phoenix integration modeling is not always the relationship between dragon and Phoenix connect. If unearthed the tomb of Fu Hao Yin a combination of dragon and Phoenix jade pieces, namely dragon 大凤 small, the other for the Dragon 上凤 overlapping on the rocks above. To sum up, the combination has been formed in the Shang Dynasty dragon shape, but they still have many prehistoric bird mouth fish fish color, the expression of &ldquo like pursuit; ”, its meaning is still to communicate the world for the purpose. The other is by the former generation and combination of dragon and Phoenix evolved, but its image and meaning have undergone a qualitative change. The dragon body patterning the color is more dense, showing a complex changes; they also rarely showed straight dew mouth bite relationship, and become intertwined, Gu Pan, dance and other forms, which is filled with harmonious, cheerful atmosphere. Four deer 四龙 four Phoenix scheme of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty typical dragon wall three-dimensional modeling in the Warring States period tombs Hebei Pingshan County in Zhongshan tomb No.1, also known as the dragon and Phoenix tangled scheme. Zhongshan is a very important state in the Warring States period, the country is North National White 狄所 built, but the influence of Chinese culture, which is the “ Tong Xi as authentic thinking of Confucianism, so the ” religious philosophy idea and Chinese countries roughly the same. Longfeng tangled scheme, “ case frame used for square, composed of four long 四凤 case base support. The four long branch four angle, long neck and slender, the former leader of the case, and connected into an arc angleThe shape of the contour line. Author boldly to the dragon design for dual three tail, the body from the chest below is divided into two branches, turning up, the tail slightly anti hanging horn. The adjacent two tail hook wrap, on each side to form a chain block center. Each long left tail and don't make a case seat center arch wall. A long shoulder wings, eight Dragon Wing end connected, forming a cladding cup. … … the body turning make serial also added four phoenix. … … crested, chicken feet from the tail around the junction of serial out, wings, tail cross in serial, cross point which makes this a beautiful myth animal lies in the method of rotating line, has broken the original flow curve and greatly enriched the decoration structure project. ” according to "Lu spring and autumn · first knowledge access" Jin Tai Shi Tu Zhongshan carrying 黍云 custom “ her dizzy Kangle, good sad songs, ” Longfeng tangled scheme is with strong religious art color, while its main meaning of yin and Yang of &rdquo or “. Ming, Qing two generations is Chinese painting development period. From ancient dragon image works, its expression and painting skills have become more mature. Such as the Ming Dynasty painter Wang Zhe Zhao freehand landscape painting “ play Jiao figure ” and the two of them to the wild storms, depicting the bank through the trails, hostess heard thunder to stop and look back on look, just see the horizon clouds have a dragon Fen claws to rise. This painting brushwork, ink gas plays dripping; painted scene is the world without, but in a sense; it successfully shows the relationship between people, the rain, the dragon of the three, to give people the feeling of be personally on the scene. Meticulous figure painting is painted with dragon image works of Ming Dynasty the anonymous “ Baimiao arhat ” volume etc.. The scroll is 314 cm in length, which are drawn on the line in the sea ocean scene, with light and elegant, vivid performance of the traditional concept of Dragon God for livestock by god. This kind of God on the image belongs to one of the traditional common themes, but the Ming Dynasty painter full lost his life. Contain Zi Shu Chang, Zhejiang Jiaxing people, is a famous painter Sheng Maozhi. He is good as landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, in the Ming Hongwu years for things in the house. He later granted celestial temple wall paintings, meticulously painted by “ jellyfish lapras back ” murals. But it actually makes Zhu Yuanzhang great anger, hold for “ not said the purpose of ” by “ abandoned city ”. In history, Zhu Yuanzhang is a killing innocent tyrant. He was born of humble parentage, deep inferiority complex that he suffers from long allergies. Perhaps he believed that contain is “ the dragon was a woman by ” to taunt him the “ &rdquo, sons of the heaven; he created this case. Sheng's misfortune, it is still a sense of be indignant. The Qing Dynasty painting master, the most worthy of a book is the painter Zhou * (1649— 1729). Zhou * word Kun, Henan Songshan people, industry figures, flowers, animals, especially good at painting. He not only skilled in painting, but also proficient in martial arts, especially good spear, the military commander called in ancient painters is the only one. Zhou * had to draw a dragon painting hangs in Yellow Crane Tower, when the cable value. Have to take this Bian Wu, Zhou * fight, make Bian Wu defeated. After Hunan Ding Si hole saw this painting, very admire, draw up gold 102 paintings, Zhou * gives way: “ * non will be 100 gold also, talk to observe the eye and ear. The public can know, * find friends also, when friends give. He painted with &rdquo. It is a “ not to be subdued by force, immune to temptations ” hero. Yong Zheng seven years (in 1729), and Zhang Tianlai for weeks * in the Yangtze River Basin planning peasant uprising, the unfortunate disclosure of the confidential information, by government persecution, aged 8L years old. Zhou * many works handed down, his “ Mo ” hidden in the Nanjing museum. The diagram of longitudinal 129, cross 60 cm, the picture of a dragon looming on the beautiful clouds, dragon basically belongs to the front, bearded giant mouth, eyes like beads, looked awesome; gas by light halo, such as condensed clumps, is lustrous and dazzling; picture full of weird terror atmosphere. The Qing Dynasty scholar Zhang Gengping weeks * long 画云: “ its a shading cloud, several to a hundred times, the superficial and deep far and near, steamed steamed cloudy, but the foot and pleasing to the eye. A cloud wins away, but shading too, not easy also. ” ("country" the painting sign record) of reason. Maybe weeks * is on the move in and out with wizardly elusiveness of the “ ” art forms to express the anti Qing his ambition. We have to watch this piece of “ the Molong graph &rdquo, still feel the infinite charm. In Chinese painting history, painting and drawing dragon “ ichthyosaurs, &rdquo does not occupy an important position. Two, the dragon and the dragon has a certain position in the science of ancient religious, political ideas, the dragon is extremely popular lines like one in real life, long natural to become writers writing material. Poetry is one of the earliest artistic forms have China literature. 305 pieces of poetry "poetry of the earliest poetry" collects the early Western Zhou Dynasty to the spring and Autumn period. "The book of songs" mentioned in the Dragon refers to objects on the dragon, especially the Dragon flag up, such as the Dragon flag “ ten by ” ("Shang song · black bird"), “ Long Qi Yang (” "Zhou Song · load see"), “ the Dragon flag Cheng Si Lu Song "(” ·? Palace ") etc.. In this book the second chapter fourth section &ldquo us to this point; the Dragon &rdquo objects on the existing paper. Notably, the poem appeared in "the book of songs" “ ”, which is decided by the nature of the early dragon. The dragon is said to be formed for the sacrifice, and specifically for the sacrifice and service; “ ” isThe king and princes is used to sacrifice or other major ceremony songs. "The book of songs · high order" said: “ song, Mei Sheng De described, its success to the gods who. ” the "Zhou Song" mainly for the early years of the Western Zhou Zhou Dynasty ritual movement, "Lu Song" in the spring and Autumn period is the mantra, "Shang song" is the spring and Autumn Period song back from work. The only top rulers worship activities, will appear with the dragon as a decorative banner. "The book of songs" in other parts of the country, such as “ &rdquo, taken from the wind; the folk songs, which does not meet with the Dragon related content, this fully shows the early dragon and people's real lives far apart. During the Warring States period, the Chu and the rise of a new form of — — ". The great poet Qu Yuan's "Nine Songs", is based on the Chu folk ritual witch song based creation. Chen Benli of the Qing Dynasty "Quci essence" in say: “ nine songs of joy, a male witch song, a witch singer, a shaman and dance singer; a witch and wizard and the. ” however, "Nine Songs" is not the song as the book, but by the great poet in the hand of the re creation, so it is full of human feelings, full of fantasy, twists and turns, deep, rich artistic charm. "Nine Songs" has a lot to long lines, these dragons are belong to God and driving livestock. Such as "monarch of clouds" “ long drive, Emperor ” "&ldquo," Xiang Jun; Jia Fei Long Xi, Zheng ” “ ‘ Shi Lai Xi shallow Xi, dragon dancing, "Da Siming" ” “ Cheng Xi, "Bo" were ” “ driving two dragon, can Chi ” etc.. The poem is the basic meaning of art dragon reflect. Qu Yuan's gods, although the same business car, but its modality grace not identical: the gentleman glories, Xiang Jun painful lingering, Da Siming proud and free and easy, Dongjun distinguished deep, the light and elegant; it is wonderful, colorful. "Chu Ci" has a great influence on later poems. Cao Wei period, manufacturers “ Seven Sages of the bamboo grove ” Ji Kang advocate old, Zhuang theory, the "Poems" written in Qing Jun police Qiao, free from vulgarity. “ looking at Yamakami Matsu, long Yu lush valley. In a high, independent Jiong warriors. May want to swim under, through the road will never pass. Wang Joe I was abandoned, by driving six dragon. … … ” artistic conception was accepted "Chu Ci" effect. Ji Kang's strong, wild, detest the world and its ways. He tended to royal family in politics, refused to cooperate with Sima's, which was Sima's henchman of hate. Ji Kang had to “ the ” self-evident, express their depressed mood of anger. “ the fertility god body, jump scales play blue pool. Conclusions for the 大庭, Huang Xi lie on foot. Qingyun did not hang Jing, pan Heng Chao Yang po. Long not my horse, domain to be popular yi. Special kinds of difficult times, base on divergent flow. … … ” ("a poem" one) to Long Yu belongs to the fashion at the time. "Book of Jin · Ji Kang" said Ji Kang “ the wizards, far Liao not group … … people think long chapter charm, talent natural ”. It was also the dragon, the Phoenix to praise Ji Kang, Yu Long or self-evident to not make too. … …
Editor recommends

China dragon issue has been considered one of the most China game hidden in historical culture. "Dragon and the China culture". Based on the archaeological, cultural relics, the combination of ancient literature, the research of this topic, put forward own views. Rich in that book, and supplemented by a large number of illustrations, graphics and text. Text, smooth, enhanced the book interesting and informative, suit and the common people.
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