History China Customs: the primitive society Vol.

Date of publication:2001-11   Press: Shanghai literature and art   Author:Song Zhaolin   Pages:599  
Summary

The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life, relevant research works on the range has been quite different, we after many discussions, on the basis of draw on the previous research, try to make a breakthrough. With its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, Song Liao Jin Xia, yuan and Ming, Qing, the twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs, as for each volume chapter setup. The spirit of "seeking friends, preserving differences" principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era.
Catalogue of books

The first section is the original order what customs second customs origin third original custom changes the first chapter diet custom section of food structure section second food processing section third section fourth cooking utensils cooking Fifth Festival Diet Custom second chapter in custom section garment section second human body decoration third apparel origin fourth dress evolution and function of third chapter inhabitancy custom section from the cave to the house second home type third section from fire to fire fourth stoves, fifth furniture fourth chapter travel custom section road section second waterway traffic fifth chapter of birth customs first birth concept evolution of second section birth customs third day production Weng for section fourth children education section fifth chapter sixth adult ceremony marriage customs first wild if section second visiting marriage third dual marriage fourth group of marriage fifth single marriage seventh chapter first funeral funeral custom types in section second The third section was buried with fourth day fifth day sixth day cemetery burial ceremony......
Chapter excerpt

Digest using catheter drinking, the key lies in his. Because a bottle of wine and other liquid properties, are often Yongping state, it can flow from high to low. But when drinking alcohol. Drinkers are sitting around the wine jar around, the head is much higher than the urn of wine in the horizontal plane, in this case, wine is not automatically flow out, only by drinking it suck, suck it up to the wine. This is the origin of the ZA wine. Za wine method first, by drinking method inspired, and no vine branch duct, but directly through the mouth suck. From the relevant historical data, Za wine drinking is collective form, usually a wine jar on the ground, the altar mouth inserted a rattan or bamboo, all central altar and sit, take turns drinking. In summary, the banquet (琼黎 diet "screen, side there are two people in the strike gongs, a drum and dance, the other side is a person is bow shot a deer, Central Plaza, five men with two jars of ZA wine. Painted on a section of text: "choose empty wine altar and the number of sheep and pigs, poultry such as storage and cook it, men and women on the ground clutter to sit, drink with a bamboo pole, on the altar and suck, mutual fun." Za wine, there are several catheter inserted in a jar of the phenomenon. As a result, the ZA wine is a kind of primitive collective drinking method. Of course, the ZA wine is drinking an ancient method, because of historical development is not balanced, in many national regions still remain. "Yi chuan-100": "wine or cup, or cylinder." Note said: "false some wine, then stain with water in a jar, cylinder in the lamp, beacon test number, the time of lift cylinder za." Other ethnic groups are also popular Za wine, Gaoshan Nationality, Yi, Li, Qiang, the Mosuo people in hollow bamboo, Dai to fern rods, Gelao rattan pole to pole, Miao lu. We see in Hainan Li Cun, the family in the pottery pot interpolation rattan, or a plurality of bamboo, bamboo is split into several shares, a date stone leak. Smoke wine, all rings and sit, followed by his wine. When people suck rod, wine and bad in the bamboo, smooth, or worse it will block the suction rod. 1 now let us have a look Digest specific cooking techniques in prehistoric times. In the south, found in the ruins of Zhejiang Hemudu Site, pottery pot, cooker, rice remains found is quite rich, interesting is, in some pottery, often accompanied by burning rice crust, according to research is Steamed Rice residue. This is the big Steamed Rice as staple food features, and pottery is cooking utensils. Show that the as ethnology, pottery can only cook Rice porridge, can't cook rice, this is the limitation of the ceramic cooker cook. Hemudu Site culture is divided into several periods, the culture of early only still not retort, indicating that only the porridge, eat Rice porridge. To Hemudu Site culture of third, and the emergence of a new cooker -- retort, it marks appear steamed rice. Ordinary people think Tao Ge is cooking, but empty sufficient Ge boiling water can be, porridge or cooked rice will empty foot with, it is not convenient to stir, so it is not suitable for cooking, and is suitable for boiling water, boil a bulk food, such as meat, taro class, if you add a grate at the bottom, also can be steamed food. Because of the empty sufficient Ge inconvenience to cook, and later much instead of solid Li Taige foot, or smaller, and tend to the pot, Tao Fu changes. Should say, the northern Cook millet, millet, as usual, porridge, not cooked rice. There should be pointed out that, whether it is Li, Dulong Moinba, Lhoba, still, not only Steamed Rice they cook porridge, which also mixed with some wild herbs, and even add some meat. From the later literature shows, there are many kinds of porridge, "Zuo Zhao Gong seven years": "饘 so, porridge and so, to paste wells." Still have a kind of porridge for the elixir. "Zhou Tian officer wine" Zheng note: "this porridge...... Elixir of drinking, porridge dilute the clear." Jia Shu: "this is the thin gruel." The porridge is originated in prehistoric times, has the gruel,Relatively dry porridge, vegetable porridge, gruel. 2 steam pottery cooking, although inaugurated a new era in cooking, made a significant contribution to the diet culture, but because the Tao 质易 bad, cooking gruel can, cook, cook the meat is not a problem, but not to cook rice. In fact, with the development of agriculture, increase the yield of food, people should not only eat Rice porridge, also want to eat, how to cook rice with pottery? This will improve cooking utensils and cooking method. Pottery cooked rice with rice, is easy to adhesion and pottery cooker bottom, when people have rice crust, easy to not solid pottery. From the Hemudu Site culture pottery fragments preserved rice crust was seen, porridge is also easy to adhesion, people accidentally put the pottery broke down, leaving a lot of crust fragment. In order to solve the above contradiction, must make the ceramic cooking utensils and food has a certain distance, but the water is indispensable. If the water in the lower pottery or earthenware, middle layer, hole in the grate, grate on food, so in the cooker ignition cooking, cooked food can also achieve the purpose of. But the cooking method is not cook, but steaming, which invented the steam rice rice steamer. Qiao Zhou "ancient history": "yellow emperor made test cauldron caldron", "Emperor Beginning Valley steamed rice, cooking porridge valley". The rice steamer is the use of steam flow and the food steaming cookware, actually has two parts: the lower part is still in contact with the fire pot, kettle, cooker, water stored in the following, when the fire, boiling water, but water is not put meters; the upper part of a basin or tank shaped container, flat, there are several at the bottom of the hole, the frame in a steam cooker, and Sheng Tao good rice or other food, above the, after a certain time after cooking, the M do mature rice. We will upper vessel called the caldron. Retort and steaming with, nature is cooked rice, but not alone. The biggest characteristic of the rice steamer is with a plurality of holes at the bottom, so the bottom of steam flow, said grate. Ceramic cooker without grate porridge, a grate steaming, steaming will show. "Shuowen": "grate, shield also. So do the bottom." A note: "steamer, steaming rice, the bottom seven wear, have to bamboo word, rice is not leak." As a result, put "bamboo" will be in the retort bottom, called the grid rack, bamboo grate, to prevent the rice from leakage. Food cooking utensils, not limited to a, there is also a special cooking -- Yan, 甎 is a kind of special steamed cookware larger. The upper part of the lower part is, for Li, a layer between the upper and lower. The upper part and the lower part is the overall together, there are upper and lower separation. "Er Ya interpretation of animal": "good lift 甎." Guo Puzhu: "甎, Yamagata like retort, large small." The use of 甎 steaming, the Tao Yan in the above fireplace, Ge is filled with water, placed grate to the boiling water, poured in the grate, meters, stamped, after a certain time can make the steamed rice. According to the authors observed in minority nationality areas, steaming food, far not only in the genus, as long as there is water boiling cooker, it equipped with a hole at the bottom of the vessel, just put the food steaming. Such as Hainan Li did not retort, Yan, they in the ceramics, an a few milk or angular in pottery pot placed on the central symmetry, the bamboo grate, can be steamed Steamed Rice or taro. In the Qianyama Ranagisa culture unearthed a piece of pottery tripod, a week ridges Ding inner central, which is placed grate parts, that can also be used pottery tripod steamed food. In fact, some ancient pottery is very high, is also the big small bottom, side looking like a trapezoid shape, such as the Liaoning rich river culture, Hongshan culture, Zhushan culture and Xinle culture, with sand pots for cooking, if the water is arranged in the middle part, grate, the upper can be steamed food. Steamed method, not only can be steamed Steamed Rice, also can be steamed taro potato food, pasta, including stuffed pasta, thereby increasing the variety of food, to expand the source of food. The food and cooking in boiling water to a certain distance, evaporation is not easy to burn the food, to avoid the waste of food, cooking can be easy to digest food. But the evaporation time is cooking time is slightly longer, will waste more fuel, this is insufficient steaming method. However, with the steaming, boiling cooker appeared, people invented pottery. Chinese primitive society there are pottery four shapes: a basin shaped or dustpan, the shelves of cooking utensils, such as the unearthed Beixin culture, Banpo Yangshao culture, culture of Hemudu Site had, like a brazier holder cookware, firepower, save fuel. A basin shaped Ding, a basin with three legs to, such as the Miaodigou site unearthed. A cylindrical, popular in the Longshan culture; there is a pottery and barrel stove body, also popular in the Longshan culture. But the pottery unearthed not widely distributed, not much, is a kind of local cooking support, not used in the fire. From the world of prehistoric diet cooking, human first carried out barbecue, after the invention of pottery, it generally implement cooking, but now there is a clear differentiation: take the grain as the staple food of the people, whether to eat rice or millet to cook food, as the main form of cooking; some pasta based National continue the development of the technology development of the barbecue, drying method, this method is more popular in foreign countries. Boiled water is not easy to master, the heat is not good control, so must mix with agitation, prevent paste pot. Evaporation method was solved this contradiction, and can cook rice, pasta. Food is an important symbol of human food to improve the level of. The above is the basic recipe prehistoric. It should be pointed out, pottery in the history of cooking. It is of epoch-making significance, and created a new era of Chinese cooking technology. But it is limited to cooking. The biggest characteristic China cooking technology is the use of oil fried fried food, pottery are incapable of action, which limits the development of the cooking technology. After the only metal cooking utensils cooking techniques have highly developed. From the archaeological materials, as early as four thousand years ago has invented bronze, but the quantity is less, basic is a small tool, decorations, can not be replaced in the position of pottery cooking. The Shang and Zhou dynasties developed bronze age, but bronze weapons, mainly used in ritual and a small amount of production tools, as to make pots or small bronze, limited to a minority of nobility. When iron is widely used, however, pottery is the main cooking utensils. Only to the Han Dynasty to the widespread use of iron cookware, led to another revolution Chinese diet. Seen from the changes of these cooking techniques,Prehistoric diet has three revolution....... Illustrations
Media attention and comments

Order after several years of hard work, wisdom and achievements of many experts and scholars, this "China customs" finally completed the compilation of general history. On this occasion, we as book organizers and participants, deeply gratified. Custom has the status and role play a decisive role in China's long history, rulers and the Confucian scholar officials tend to be referred to the height of the country. Such as when the Western Han Dynasty Jia Shan, pointed out in "Zhi Yan" s: "popular, ages of the. "(" Han Jia Shan Chuan Ying Shao ") in" custom meaning "the preface said:" for politics should, verify the custom. Most of its on. "Because of this, they advocate change existing habits and customs, emphasizes education and demonstration role. "Xunzi music theory": "change existing habits and customs, the peace of the universe, beauty and goodness. "Yuan said," political theory ":" the sage uprising also, can change existing habits and customs, and can be applied to teach people. "" book of filial piety ":" change existing habits and customs, is not good at music. "Therefore, research Chinese custom history, summarize the experience and lessons Chinese evolution law of custom, not only help people understand China historical culture, promote the construction of China history, folklore, but also for promoting the civilization construction of the current two, undoubtedly has a very important significance. About the meaning of the ancient customs, has explained, such as the Eastern Han Dynasty Ban Gu "Han" volume eight "geography" cloud: "where a public letter Wuchang nature, while the rigid flexible priority, voice is different, the soil atmosphere, so that the wind; likes and dislikes of choice, dynamic and static death often, as the monarch of the passions, so that the customs. "New", "Customs article is:" the wind gas also, vulgar habits also. Land springs of water, gas or other, sound, that the wind behavior; habitat here, learning is by nature, that's vulgar. "From these ancient paper can be clearly seen," wind "is formed due to soil, climate, natural conditions such as different products and fashion, and" vulgar "is used by social behavior social living conditions and the formation of different. The two together, is the custom, namely: custom is a regional and national long-term form of social customs and habits of the people collectively. It is also a cultural phenomenon existing in the human society is very unique, like a mirror, vividly and concretely reflects a country, a nation, an area of each historical period social style, with regional, national, inheritance, social and spontaneous character. The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life. Relevant research works on range has always been quite entry. We have been discussed many times, on the basis of previous results carefully, try to make a breakthrough. According to its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. From the creative to all of the manuscript be published, which lasted for several years. During this period, although we repeatedly on issues related to the compilation of the academic discussions, but because the author more time to prepare, and relatively short. The entire frame running in and connection of the volume and some other specific issues can still exist some not just as one wishes place, please advice and criticisms. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, song, Jin, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Western Xia, in twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs. As for the volume of the chapter, the spirit of "seeking common ground while reserving differences," principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era. Book compiling and publishing, has been the strong support and help Shanghai literature and Art Publishing House and the leadership of the comrades here, express our thanks. Also, the preparation of the book in addition to our long-term accumulation of data and research results, but also reference the research results of many scholars, especially in this together to provide a reference to all the book learning to extend my heartfelt thanks! Chen Gaohua Xu Jijun 2001.6
Editor recommends

The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life, relevant research works on the range has been quite different, we after many discussions, on the basis of draw on the previous research, try to make a breakthrough. With its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, Song Liao Jin Xia, yuan and Ming, Qing, the twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs, as for each volume chapter setup. The spirit of "seeking friends, preserving differences" principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era.
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  •   Very classic "Chinese customs history". Proposed purchase of learning. Express is awesome, very satisfied.
 

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