Because of "Seven Faces" of the Ming Dynasty in the book and the reputation of Zhang Hongjie, recently launched a big "ten faces" the emperor Qian Long, published by people's Literature Publishing house. The series of "Reading Library" published "the emperor Qian Long and the Opium War", is the essence of the book compilation version. In Zhang Hongjie's view, is the emperor Qian Long planted the seeds of the Opium war. In 1793 the English people beg Qianlong and did not receive anything, in 1842 through the war a lot to get. No doubt, the emperor Qian Long was one of the greatest emperor Chinese history. Some critics even remove the "one" two characters. The emperor under the rule of the China, than vertical, is the most populous country period, the most abundant Chinese thousands of years of history in the. Horizontally, was the world's most powerful, most rich countries. But the spirit of the people, work hard one year, and liabilities of three two, no production surplus. When encountering a famine, ordinary people will immediately bankruptcy, sell their children is very common. The emperor Qian Long had to super terror as a means to remove all the seeds, may endanger the ideological rule. Literary movement of more than thirty years, as the whole society into a pressure cooker for sterilization treatment, completed from outside to inside of the comprehensive cleaning, destroyed all the heretical thought sprout perfect situation, creating a he thinks all generations without the worry of iron jiangshan. Qian Long's spirit prison carefully shaped by national, is a docile, obedient, endurance is extremely strong, but not straight waist, open your eyes, breathe the world tide. The spirit of the Chinese nation with Qian Long as the representative of the absolute spirit caused by the weak, conservative, rigid, but failed China Opium War in the reason, is since the Opium War in the modern way of China go so one of the reasons the stumbling, arduous and tortuous. In the Qianlong died more than two hundred years later, people still keep on repeating at great length in Qianlong's stability and great, profound ponder Qianlong ruling strategy. Many people still firmly believe that, the style and the method is suitable only in the reign of this unique piece of land. Only a thorough understanding of the other side of the Qian Long era, the era of a comprehensive and accurate evaluation and loss, our nation will not be experienced "Qian Long spirit". "The wife" is a documentary photographer for Ma Hongjie following the "monkey man after lake" again in the reading library published works. Local rural natural conditions in North China better, a lot of people in poor areas of Ningxia wife -- known locally as "buying a wife". Ma Hongjie teacher in seven or eight years time, a rural disabled man was recorded with his camera, several times to Ningxia, and many women one one to meet, and has four times the wedding. Through this period of amazing marriage close shot, we see the disabled persons in rural areas to the helplessness of marriage, as well as some life under certain environmental condition, see the bitter, but happy, pessimistic, interwoven in the distorted life together, and a strange way of trying to change the fate of. "Violence" in chess, writing is the new king Gu Li. Gu Li was born in Chongqing, this is a bit "chess" flooding of the city. Gu Li's teacher Gong Liangting gave him is: it is better to die, die; health as an outstanding personality, death is also a male ghost; who dares to kill, not afraid of death is good; more is not clear place more risk; or fish, or web; players is to go through the baptism of the rivers and lakes to afford to fight. Jianghu chess not speak, do not speak art. Gu Li chess is greatly influenced by the rivers and lakes of chess, chess manage water in many areas. All told, about the personality power chess, chess is not clear, will fight with you. Rival perish together, afraid of the opponent. Even the coulee mom knows, part-time Master Li childhood and rivers and lakes on the lower than chess, murderous look very heavy, often kill the dragon. Either the dragon, or be killed. This, like the people in Chongqing outgoing personality. Now go the world entered the era of violence, "notSpeak the truth, to you is the hard truth". The South Korean chess champion Li Shishi is playing violence go, real all-powerful, the sword points, shed blood like water. Era of violence violence with violence, the achievements of the new title -- in the rivers and lakes of chess in the death from the coulee. Following He Wei (Peter Hessler) Sir, a "New York" magazine writer Ou Yiwen (Evan Osnos) began to "read" feeds repository. His "the land of Canaan" one article is Guangzhou the land market and the rise of the merchant class Africa. Dim the lights, filled with Africa buyers and sellers in the market Chinese Canaan, roughly a vague shape of peach. Almost all customers are from Nigeria, Maryland, Garner and the other Africa national merchant. These people the overwhelming, so that Kenya airlines in 2008 November launched from Africa Chinese first direct flights to mainland. The taxi drivers say this area as "chocolate city". And in Shenzhen, a black high often at a local orphanage volunteer, teach children music, and donated equipment. He is currently the American President Barack Obama's half brother. He has invested in a company called "log cabin" chain Coffee shop, and married his longtime girlfriend Chinese, do not intend to leave China. From "0901" to read database in Taiwan author Zhang Tiezhi's article, is one of the topics introduced in twentieth Century, American protest singer. This period "" I do not belong to a part of the movement "," this is the famous Bob Dylon. Zhang Tiezhi points out, Bob Dylon is regarded as a protest singer spokesman, this seems to be the biggest mistake in music history: "Dylan is never a recreation or pleasing the audience of music, his political nor to protest, not to change the world, he just used his music and poetry to illuminate the world. He just for myself and sing, just want to keep going, even if there might be dark and lonely." He started from a political songs and previous different. He is not going to education or encourage people, but to express his personal face unjust anger. When many people are the songs as a protest against the weapon, but Dylan just protest songs as one of the materials, help us understand the world barren and social system. This series of Exlibris is drawn by Mr. Ji Zhaohua.
From "0901" to read database in Taiwan author Zhang Tiezhi's article, is one of the topics introduced in twentieth Century, American protest singer. This period "" I do not belong to a part of the movement "," this is the famous Bob Dylon. Zhang Tiezhi points out, Bob Dylon is regarded as a protest singer spokesman, this seems to be the biggest mistake in music history: "Dylan is never a recreation or pleasing the audience of music, his political nor to protest, not to change the world, he just used his music and poetry to illuminate the world. He just for myself and sing, just want to keep going, even if there might be dark and lonely." He started from a political songs and previous different. He is not going to education or encourage people, but to express his personal face unjust anger. When many people are the songs as a protest against the weapon, but Dylan just protest songs as one of the materials, help us understand the world barren and social system. This series of Exlibris is drawn by Mr. Ji Zhaohua.
Zhang Lixian, Hebei Zhaoxian County person, publisher, writer. Because like the number six, with six claiming, net move. Now living in Beijing. Part in the establishment of "football night", "life" magazine. A former modern press deputy editor in chief, planning some literary books, such as "journey to the west", "book", "independent spirit", "Jia Wei is Lake Forest", and published a personal writings "memory", the new name for the "get out of the way, let us sing eighty years". The current "Reading Library" editor in chief, cross job, finish a Book Planning, soliciting, editing, design, printing, advertising, publishing each link, involves editing, art, finance, public relations, sales in the field. The force with one person, a Chinese publication has continued to publish a Book Brand "read" miracle library. No matter from the content, format or to the binding and layout, the pursuit of perfection and be strict in one's demands, are so many publishing peer shame. The open reading blogs, became "a good platform to read" the game to achieve communication.
Emperor Qian Long and the Opium War Western Zhao wife private Chronicles: my one nine seven eight violent chess the land of Canaan until the stars at your feet. "I don't belong to a part of the movement" Liu Rushi earth pleasantness and crisis Kitajima Mi word error
Emperor Qian Long and the Opium War in 1793 people in England beg Qian Long not to get something, in 1842 through the war a lot to get. The British emperor was like western toys gift. This is obviously interested and father. Yong Zheng the workaholic is well known in the history, in fact, the spare time is a very modern game player, especially like the western. Now the Imperial Palace museum also kept his several pieces of wearing a suit, wearing a wig and a large number of portraits, Western clockwork, telescope he played even microscope. Qianlong The students surpass the teacher., also brought the entertainment trend. Who can jump out of a bird or out of a small time western clockwork, from childhood to adulthood, always can let him surprise. Twenty-two years of Qianlong (1757 December), the emperor favor the viceroy of Guangdong Customs supervision of Li Shiyao and Li Yongbiao, said: "this into gold ocean King table Pavilion! Then like this beautiful who seek a few, have large and beautiful, but also find a few, do not have to cherish. As a tribute to the Dragon Boat Festival, a few years!" The emperor so directly to Liege demand tribute, the Qing Dynasty does not see more, see the emperor was "like tight". Don't think of seclusion, rulers of the Qing Dynasty's contact with the outside world without. In fact, Paris or London popular thing, often soon with the merchant or missionaries introduced into Beijing. Europe's top watchmakers all day thinking of Kangxi and Qianlong age preferences Chinese emperor, and Europeans make light of travelling a thousand li, mechanical equipment shipped from Europe, started the watch factory in Guangzhou, designed for the emperor and the nobility of production of luxury. Some Chinese builders also play Chinese unique talent of mimicry, a lot of fake American products, and lifelike. But the emperor saw at a glance that the joint venture and counterfeit goods is not authentic, emphasizing the Palace used must be imported from advancing too: "bamboo green, ocean paint containers, nor Yang do. Such as watch, glass, gold and Silver Satin varnish, carpet, provided in the ocean, do to." In addition to watch, the emperor also on the automatic toy fascinating, especially the "robot" and "animal machine". The palace of the western missionaries Xi Cheng Yuan developed a head "to the lion", volume is really a lion lion, hidden in the abdomen, can do a hundred paces away. The Emperor himself came to watch, watch "to the lion" swagger came up to him, was happy. In addition, there are many Western artifacts caused by the emperor's interest. He sent missionaries Wei Jijin and Lu Zhongxian taught little eunuch learning "大拉琴" (presumably cello) and "play" (violin), in the palace the organization a violin, piano, Oboe, clarinet, guitar, the western orchestra, so that living in the palace of the harem also enjoy exotic. In 1792, is fifty-seven years of Qianlong emperor fall, received an emergency the governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, said there was a "English" strange country, sent to Guangzhou to send letters, intended to pay tribute Chinese. The back was accompanied by a translation into Chinese British "business manager" "lark" intrinsic "paper". This letter of the highly China intrinsic characteristics, contents are as follows: the English commander officer Guo trade management. I would like to show you China adult Braun, junan. I own king, tube ah LAN 地嘧 tons, French, AI Lun three place, send ships to the Canton trade. Smell China emperor eight years in longevity, its not a people in Beijing at the wish longevity, my king very uneasy heart. I said the king said: "I want to ask Chinese emperor grace rather than. All of my people to wide, trade and China people, the lover, but at higher rates and physiological, goods." The king ordered local officials public auxiliary ministers do Gell, sent to tianjin. If invited to China emperor reward see him, my king is very glad, ensure that the English people and Chinese people Chinese forever lover. He will sail to Tianjin, a tribute the valuable, there are big ticket goods, on the way to fear, by water to Beijing, do not damage, early to Beijing and hebei.Another difference ship escort counterparts. Always ask adults to give my king played tomorrow at the big emperor Sean, the ship to Tianjin, or the nearest local anchor. I only pious percussion and bless Chinese adult longevity long. The letter from the big side unknown country letter language is very "obedient". You see, the emperor turned eighty last year, they know the message late, did not catch up with the king, they had "very uneasy heart", so it is easier to rush this to the emperor's birthday, if the emperor would like to see him, then their king will be "very happy", but also "Qian Kou and bless Chinese adult longevity long", is really know courtesy. The emperor after reading very satisfied. However, the problem is, the English country is what kind of state? In which direction? How far is it? The intrinsic mentioned in the text of "French", don't mention French missionaries and a little relationship? The emperor ordered to move to eight years ago adjustable concentrated all erudite revised "Daqing Yitong Zhi". There Chinese know all the countries have been recorded in this book. However, from A to Z turn again, although found the missionaries often say what France, Italy, but couldn't find the three words of the shadow. The emperor for the palace missionaries, ask what is the English country. The missionaries did know, tell him, "the country is red hair, in the western North, in China northwest", and the state of France and Italy in the same direction, also known to manufacturing equipment. The emperor was very pleased, this means, in Qing Dynasty the vassal state on the list, and will add the last new name. The number of how many Chinese, country attaches great importance to. Chinese imagine the world is, in the world China central, is a civilized country, surrounded by countries around Chinese around, all settlement in the barbaric darkness, therefore, China willing to Huairou people, to the surrounding "spread the sound teaching", with their own light of civilization will save them from the unfortunate in the dark. Four weeks that the white matter of Yi people "go to the" Middle Kingdom, eagerly expect to learn, learning advanced culture. "Kingdom", "Shii obey" is always the central Empire sign of success. More and more states Chinese Empire, that empire more good governance. The central dynasty through canonization, give legitimacy to small Dynasty around, and the legitimacy of the Central Dynasty itself, to a certain extent, also need to support small have to prove. Generally speaking, add a new name is not easy in the tributary on the list. In addition to like Ming emperor sent Zheng He voyages that make every attempt sent to attract, like the emperor that big war threatened. And now, neither by the Qing Empire troops, has not sent tens of thousands of miles away in the Atlantic, the famous English country "never far Mu sound teaching, go to", the initiative to pay tribute. Proof that this isn't the imperial cultural influence? The best comment isn't this great prosperity? Isn't this the emperor's a blessing? Besides, this new "servants" will contribute a lot to the emperor priceless treasures. The intrinsic this isn't to say very clearly? "A tribute to the valuable, there are big ticket goods, on the way to fear, by water to Beijing, do not damage, early to Beijing and hebei". According to the Convention, foreign tribute to make all from the Guangzhou sea shore. The emperor back to the viceroy, special approval by the English people with Tianjin landing: "read the love words extremely deferential courtliness, self quasi it please, hence its voyage to the sincere." In fact, the British are not stranger in Imperial china. They came to Chinese seaside has been for hundreds of years, they have been one of the big country's most important trade partner country. Since ancient times, the British have always attracted to the east of this mysterious country. As early as in 1497, the British Capote tried to break through to the Chinese route, but without success. Until 1635, the British merchant ships "London" arrived in Macao, it marks the beginning of English communication. Since then, Britain has established trade links. But the officials did not know the foreigners come from, to see them as red hair and blue eyes, thought is Dutch, so they are also called "transform". In Chinese eyes, Holland was the most powerful country in the sea. In fact, the world situation has changed. At the end of sixteenth Century, the British continued to beat Spain and Holland, the rise of the sea. In foreign trade, the British also catch up from behind, soon replaced Holland and Spain, to become the main force of foreign trade. Chinese tea became popular in the world, is the main contribution of the British businessman. Although as early as second Century BC, Chinese began to grow tea, but until the middle of the sixteenth Century was known to westerners. The rise of the Sino British trade, after the British merchants to promote, tea has gradually become the Europeans in the living room of the fashion, and make more and more people. From 1685 to 1759, more than 70 years, the China tea annual purchase quantity by more than 80000 pounds up to two million six hundred and ninety thousand pounds, up more than 30 times. Tea became Chinese exported to Europe's largest cargo, accounted for more than half of total goods from Europe to the Chinese. After the mid eighteenth Century, the British have become the absolute main trade with china. In 1764, the gross value of the goods for Europe to China silver one million nine hundred and ten thousand two, the British transport is one million two hundred and ten thousand two; when Chinese exports to gross European goods for silver three million six hundred and forty thousand two, the purchase of one million seven hundred thousand two. And at the end of eighteenth Century, the British to Chinese trade input value accounted for ninety percent of GDP in western countries, the output value accounted for more than seventy percent. The UK has already become the Chinese first big export country, is also the largest import country. But the emperor and the government Chinese to know nothing at all. The British still as the same, and the Dutchman has been called "transform". How the relationship between the two "red hair", even to deal directly with the Chinese businessmen are very fuzzy. So just change a few years ago "Daqing Yitong Zhi", recorded in Spain, France, Italy and other countries, but was not the most important trade partner. Chinese emperor why be out of touch with reality? To China foreign is often regarded as the guest of honor. Every one, often the governor to dinner, and then make a sightseeing tour and enjoy the full range of "service". But more than 200 years ago, foreign businessmen can not so much smoke "". More than 200 years ago those over a great distance to Chinese to foreign, although also a wealthy person, the China after the situation is that you can not imagine the poor. Twenty-four years of Qianlong (1759), the emperor ordered the Viceroy formulated the "guarding against foreigners five", re emphasise that Chinese government on foreign trade of a series of provisions: first, Chinese government refused to deal directly with the foreign merchant. The Qing Dynasty not only investment office, Investment Promotion Bureau, the Ministry of foreign trade, even without formal diplomatic institutions. All foreign affairs, by the "Thirteen line" the folk organization. The thirteen line, is China government in thirteen Guangzhou designated Chinese businessman, responsible for doing business with foreigners. Foreign businessmen to Chinese, all the goods can only be sold to thirteen lines, regardless of whether they give the price much lower than others. Procurement of all things, must go through them, no matter how they raise prices, lower quality. All the action in the foreign China, to monitor is bound by thirteen rows, must not go one step further, not utter a word. If what difficulties they encountered in the Chinese, have what dissatisfaction with Chinese foreign trade policy, can only ask the Chinese authorities by thirteen rows, must not be in direct contact with the Chinese official.
Bookplate: this series of Exlibris is drawn by Mr. Ji Zhaohua.
Culture @ 2017