North Sea (1915-1999), Jiangsu Wuxi people. In 1937 graduated from the History Department of Jiangsu Institute of Education, Professor of history at Xinjiang University. Has long been engaged in Xinjiang national, historical, cultural studies. His major works include "Western Historical Geography" (Volume 1, volume second), "Kazak culture history", "Hami, Turpan Uyghur Wang history" (co authored), "Xinjiang rock", "Silk Road and the historical and cultural" qiuci. Published more than 200 papers. Won the two prize of outstanding achievements, the study of the humanities and Social Sciences in universities the Xinjiang University fourth session of outstanding scientific research achievement award.
The copyright page: illustration: Kucha city states and other states in the western regions as the centralization of state power, instead of the autonomy or Commonwealth, is decided by the geography and social economic situation. First, due to the development of Silk Road commercial economy, strengthen the link between the size of the city, with the city economy, military strength and political, mergers and other states have desire, forming a large oasis confrontation, thus the city-state politics to the regional political, so only practiced centralization system, can strengthen against the political need. The silk trade to the Silk Road of the city country brings luxurious economic prosperity and life, and give the ruling class has brought huge profits. These Silk Road in the country, more frequent commercial trade, made huge profits. More time to expand the sphere of influence, monopoly silk trade, so as to strengthen the centralization of power. In the prosperous period of Han and Tang Dynasty directly under the rule of the Qiuci Royal, witnessed the Tang central adopted centralized political, defense and United have received a huge effect, this also affects Qiuci Royal political system. The formation of these political system, in its own tradition on the basis of the original, influenced by the Huns, Han and Tang Dynasties and the Turkic and other government formed a unique Qiuci political system. First say is the supreme ruler Qiuci, which is different from the Huns Chanyu, Turkic Khan, is obviously influenced by Han culture under the influence of the call. The king under the political system, according to "the Western Han Chuan" said: "the king of Qiuci, 治延 City, mostly Wei Cheng, An Guohou, hit the auxiliary country Hou, Hu Hou, but Hu Douwei, hit the car division of the Wei, around, around, around, around the Qi Jun force auxiliary gentleman each one person, thing the South North thousand long each two people, but Hu Jun three, translation of long four." The official name is obviously influenced by the Han culture. Because the Qiuci first by the Xiongnu domination, then the conquest of Qiuci, namely train cronies, in western countries set up offices, to master the real power. "Han Hun biography" said: "the Xiongnu around Xian Wang, Gu Li, general, about about about Wei, families, about about bone hou...... From around the Xianwang to households, more than a large, small thousands, where twenty-four long, vertical, million to ride...... The twenty-four long, also their thousand long, long, long, what percent of Pi Xiao Wang, phase, Dou WeiFamilies, genera, and canal". The Xiongnu office like a military machine, is the military, military and political unity a command mechanism, so it can enforce it ruled the western countries by its official name and office, and with the drag on the military regime's chariot. Thus the Qiuci Office of Wei Cheng, around, around, around, around riding Wei Jun combined Jun are collected from the official system. The office is generally located around each one, now preserved in the rock paintings drawn by cattle, horses, sheep and other animal is symmetric about the image of a lot of. The main task of these offices is probably the most: Wei Cheng, aided King political economy, military, diplomatic and other events, the equivalent of the central dynasty prime minister, is under one person, on top of everything, the powerful figure. The rest of the left and right, left, left and right of the monarch, riding around force auxiliary gentleman is level, also shows that the Hun to Qiuci by way of military rule.
Publishing of the Silk Road and the Silk Road studies (total order) silk road and East West cultural exchange (general order two) in the first chapter of the pre Qin period of matriarchal society from section second paternal clan society third Qiuci race and dun die language (Tocharian) the second chapter in the Han Dynasty in Qiuci the first section Qiuci kings extension of the city and Yi Luo Lu city location in section second of the third day rule the Qiuci Kucha royal family in Han unification of western section fourth Hun collusion Qiuci powerful expansion section fifth Qiuci White's Royal rise sixth Qiuci people source seventh Qiuci political system the third chapter of the Han Dynasty set up the western regions frontier command in a the Western Han Dynasty unified the western section of the second section of the Eastern Han dynasty rule of section third in Han Dynasty from the western regions frontier command position change for the fourth chapter the Wei and Jin Dynasties in the first quarter and Qiuci Kucha in Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties political relations in section second and high car kingdom from third day Qiuci and pursed the country the fifth chapter of the Turkic, Tibetan Qiuci the first section of Qiuci Turkic rule rule second section of Qiuci Tubo rule sixth chapter of Tang Dynasty Anxi frontier command, four town of Secretariat The establishment of the first section Anxi frontier command set up second Anxi frontier command to qualify for the governmen Anxi frontier section third for vertical customized for fourth day, four Town governor Anxi protecting the historical role of the fifth section after the rebellion of an and Shi Anxi military section sixth Anxi support office in Kucha region military facilities seventh chapter Qiuci territory and the first section from second day counter insurgency territory four Town, located over the Western army Jiedushi Beiting eighth chapter Qiuci in first section of Huihe Khanate territory west of the second festival Mobei Uighur westward Qiuci Kucha Uighur political economy in section third section fourth Uighur and the Northern Song Dynasty and the relationship of Qiuci Kucha economic trade between the ninth chapter first feudal land system second day third day fourth day agriculture animal husbandry industry fifth day business and money circulation tenth chapter during the Han and Tang Dynasties Qiuci station the first Western settlement in the Han Dynasty in the second quarter of the Tang Dynasty in the third day wasteland in Qiuci Kucha station eleventh chapter Qiuci religious section Zoroastrianism into Qiuci and development section second and section third of Manichaeism into Qiuci Buddhism the fourth section into Qiuci and Taoism Afferent Qiuci and its effect in section fifth and section sixth of the Nestorian into Qiuci activities of Tibetan Bon into Qiuci Kucha Buddhist culture in the first section of twelfth chapter Buddhism in Kucha route and large, Hinayana teach difference Second Temple third section thirteenth chapter Qiuci Grottoes Qiuci Buddhist murals the first section and second section of the Qiuci grottoes, the Buddha, karma, support third story mural paintings in Qiuci caves of Buddhist painting fourth Qiuci Lingge painting source and characteristics of the Fifth Festival in Qiuci Grottoes murals naked art origin sixth Qiuci ancient reproduction worship of the Seventh Festival Qiuci Grottoes plants draw fourteenth chapter Qiuci art and literature section second section third festival dance music literature the fourth section fifth Drama Festival sixth Festival Painting Sculpture Seventh Festival costume reference chart @##@ directory. The silk road is the new knowledge that twentieth Century was published, but also a cultural, historical, covers religion, ethnic, archaeology and humanities, geography, meteorology, geology, biology and other natural sciences, brought together many discipline, comprehensive research of multi culture.
"The Silk Road" is one of the research: Qiuci series on the silk road.
Culture @ 2017