Culture of the Wei and Jin Dynasties

Date of publication:2000-12   Press: Academic Press   Author:Luo Zongzhen   Pages:356  

The Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties culture is a very important part of Chinese traditional culture in the long history, is the rich time characteristic and the region characteristic culture, is situated between between the Han and Tang Dynasties is the most active, the most dynamic, multi culture and distinctive compatibility, this culture has three obvious characteristics: ideological emancipation, to reproduce the "contention of a hundred schools of thought"; the future, the old leather cloth; ethnic fusion, Chinese and foreign exchange. This book has 12 chapters, from the capital of structured custom, the hierarchy of the mausoleum, the colorful music and dance, and cultural exchanges with foreign countries gradually frequently, almost all major aspects of the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties culture. The beautifully decorated, with many precious pictures (such as Wang Xizhi's "Lanting Pavilion", Gu Kaizhi's "preface admonitions scroll" etc.) description and objective and accurate text, represents the highest level of Wei Jin and the northern and Southern Dynasties culture research in china. This book is one of the "five thousand years of Chinese Culture Series", the series has eight volumes, the editors are well-known experts have cultural relics, archaeological, historical aspects of profound theoretical quality and practical experience. "Series" every book shows, an integral part of both the history of five thousand years, and is an independent existence of five thousand years of history, reflects the historical culture unique style, in many ancient cultural research books, with its distinctive features and the permanent value and become an independent school.
Author brief introduction

Luo Zongzhen, male, Jiangxi. Born in 1928. Long engaged in archaeological and historical research and archaeological work of teaching. The Nanjing Museum researcher, Professor of Zhongshan University, Nanjing University, the Jiangsu provincial archaeological expert group members. His major works include "the Six Dynasties archaeology" etc..
Catalogue of books

The first chapter general structured custom capital second chapter hierarchy of the tombs in the third chapter the vigorous development of the grotto art in Chapter fourth, rich flavor of life mural, line drawing and brick painting the fifth chapter and sixth chapter of painting and sculpture breakthroughs in the development of calligraphy inscription seventh chapter true porcelain firing 一青 porcelain was born the eighth chapter the Wei and Jin Dynasties the ninth chapter and customs of life flourishing religion tenth chapter ahead of world science and technology eleventh chapter colorful music and dance, the twelfth chapter the increasingly frequent cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries after the write the main references picture index
Chapter excerpt

(a) the capital of Six Dynasties Nanjing Jianye, build Cannes South began from Sun Wu jianye. Wei Huang two years (221 years) Sun Quan was in Wuchang, Wu Huanglong the first year (229 years) to move the capital construction; beam Jinnan moved, in the old city on the basis of Wu called Jiankang, salty and (326 - 334), and based on Wu's too early and clear palace palace in central city, the formal establishment of Miyagi, the city where the double; so Sun Quan Jianye city Nanjing as the capital at the beginning, laid the foundation for the development of the city and later; the Cambodian Jin reconstruction health capital and Miyagi, imitation and layout of Luoyang City, the foundation is still Jianye, then in the whole southern without big changes. According to the "Jiankang record" records, the capital city of weeks "twenty mile nineteen", "week Miyagi about eight years", "first with wall fence to" Late Jin Dynasty, beam beginning with bricks, Nan Qi Jianyuan two years (480 years) formally established a "wall" ("book of Nan Gotti Ji"), all brick, Liang Tian sent to prison for ten years (511 years) and building the third miyagi. Like this has three city Miyagi, in the history of the development of city is still rare, should be related to the political turmoil, the Royal jittery. Range, about construction and health capital city name, "Jiankang record" and "the land of" both records. Zhu Ao also has a detailed examination in "Jinling monuments test", not repeat them here. Need to ask is: a city today Nanjing city 鶸 Ming Temple, in the Ming Dynasty city wall, about 200 meters, the city every 48 cm long, 23 cm wide, 10 cm thick. Material, color, size and the Ming Dynasty city wall bricks bricks of different, but similar to the Six Dynasties tomb brick, can confirm that this is the site of the capital of six dynasties. "Jiankang record", "Zhi", "Jinling new palace" confirmed Taicheng Jiankang officer, rather than health capital. We know that, in previous Jiankang City, walls and gates to wall and fence for today, still see the ancient city of Yangzhou, in addition to the gate and some of the main part of brick, with most of the rest are made of rammed earth; therefore, we can see the temple after the remnants of the brick city, in the South after the. "Jiankang record" volume seventeen: "chase the first year (527 years), (Liang Wu) DiChuang with Tai Temple (now the Jiming Temple), temple in the palace. Don't open the door, the door of a chase, temple gate". And "Chi": "Geography with the Thai Temple and Taicheng road", clearly illustrates Jiankang officer in this temple south, the north gate and South Gate of palace temple stand far apart facing each other, that is bounded on the north by Taicheng in the south of the temple, which is now Southeast University north wall area. Therefore, we can see 鶸 Ming Temple in the north to the North Pole Chinese style pavilion section of the wall, which was the capital of the northern border, rather than in Taicheng. When the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Wu Shunyi two years (922 years), Yang Pu with the Thai temple stands on the waste matrix have city of thousand hospital, because do not distinguish Miyagi and the capital of Six Dynasties, mistakenly here as Miyagi, that taking down. On the construction and the capital Jiankang to, about East West of Zhongshan Road, the Taiping now Nanjing, Zhongshan East Road, south of the Arctic you North Road area this range; while the Miyagi, south of Zhujianglu Road in this Middle East, West into Xianghe, Pearl River, north to the Arctic Jiming temple area before you. Unfortunately, the city of Nanjing, the Chen Wu, Sui Wendi Yang 坚惧 south again, all razed to the ground. Long life, so far mostly has been unable to verify. Because of different regions, different period of detail, North Tomb now only the tomb of Cao Weiling, the Western Jin Dynasty tomb, tombs, the tombs of Sixteen States period, Eastern Wei and Northern Qi Dynasty mausoleum, Western Wei and Northern Zhou tomb and the tomb of Gao Juli were briefly introduced. (a) the tomb of Cao Wei Wei emperor Cao Cao's tomb, according to historical records, in Ye outside the city of Xigang, Ling Yue Gaoling. According to Cao Cao had awarded "will make", the Ling "because of the high hills, not letter not tree". Gaoling was still in the Cambodian Chinese etiquette, "Li Ling Temple offerings". Wei Wendi Cao Pihuang first three years (222 years), the "ancient not Muji, are located in the temple" on the grounds, including Gaoling's offering a house. Gaoling city is in the western suburbs of Ximen Bao temple near, its exact location is still no clue. Wei Wen emperor Cao Pi's tomb, the first Yang Mausoleum, located in the first Yang Mountain beam today's Henan Province, Luoyang City, Wen ShengBefore the Han Dynasty Zhu Ling are destroyed due to dig, so decided to his tomb "because of the mountains, no letter tree, no vertical bedroom, garden city, the Shinto", "the easy generation after knowing the". This approach Wen of Wei has an important influence on the Wei Jin mausoleum system. The first Yang Ling is currently no clue at. The Cao Wei dynasty tombs found mainly in Luoyang area. During this period the tomb still follow the eastern desert late in shape, structure, style, by the square and rectangular antechamber tomb ramp ramps, corridor, with ear room after room, funerary items tend to simplify. Luoyang in this period is only found in a tomb in 1956, which is found in Luoyang Jianxi "Zheng Shi eight years (247 years)" tomb, the tomb is a multi room brick tomb, in front of a long slope ramp, a total length of more than 35 meters, tomb unearthed pottery figurine, Tao Shengxu, Tao model burial, bronze vessels jade ", and in eight years in August" Ming iron hook etc.. (two) the Western Jin Dynasty tomb according to "selected works" volume thirty-eight "as Fu Jiyou song Gong to Luoyang on this table" note cited "remember" the Guo Yuansheng syndrome, five were located in the Western Jin Dynasty Mausoleum of things connected to the North Mangshan and dry preserved hills on both sides; the mountain, emperor of Chongyang from east to west, Wu Emperor Jun Ling Yang Ling and Hui Sun Ling; Shan Yin Xuan Yang Ling and Emperor Jun Ping ling. In the Western Jin Dynasty, the official literature, only the Emperor Xuan Yang Mausoleum records, the rest of the mausoleum are unknown record. In recent years, according to the Western Jin Dynasty Epitaphs unearthed near Luoyang clues, Chongyang, Jun Yang Ling two position has been determined. Western Jin Dynasty emperor Sima Zhao's mausoleum is located in the northern Chongyang Mangshan Mountain South of the pillow, according to the 1917 unearthed in the Jin book Shilang Xun Yue epitaph records, after the death of Xun Yue, "Jin Wen Ling Dao with attached to the right". After exploration, discovered in the tomb of five, of which the largest scale, highest tomb No. 1 is the emperor of Chongyang ling. Wu Di Sima Yan Jun Yang Mausoleum, located in Chongyang hills of West griddle Shannan, the area of the local commonly known as "Jun Ling Er". According to the 1930 of the Jin Dynasty unearthed in the elegant left s epitaph, left s died and was buried in the mausoleum 西彻道内 Jun yang. Through the exploration and survey, this discovery consists of twenty-three graves cemetery, the largest tomb No. 1 is Wu Di Jun Yang mausoleum. To determine which two mausoleum position, provides an important clue to investigate the remaining three mausoleum range. Through the exploration of Chongyang tomb, a cemetery and building sites around the cemetery. The cemetery is found only in beam, West, north, North South width is narrow ladder, the nearly 400 meters long north-south, east-west widest point about 250 meters. Found office building two sites are connected with wall, and the guard facilities. Chongyang mausoleum sitting north to south, drilling that the ramp is 46 meters long, 11 meters wide, 4.5 meters long tomb, 3.7 meters wide, 2.5 meters high, has not been found. Jun Yang Ling Ling Yuan remains far found, that was likely not building the walls, and the mountain ridge, instead of natural. The twenty-three tomb, Jun Yang Mausoleum in the cemetery were sitting north to South with both long and wide slope soil cave tomb mudao. The beam as a tomb L, Jun Yang Mausoleum in the cemetery, the tomb of 36 meters long, 10.5 meters wide, 5.5 meters long tomb, 3 meters wide, 2 meters high. The rest of the tomb in the tomb of the west, is divided into two rows, left s tomb when in which, the tomb of the tomb owner should be Wu Di imperial concubines, and the literature about Wu Di Donne pet records. Western Jin Dynasty tombs found, at present are mainly concentrated in the Luoyang area. This period tombs have been by a multi chamber tomb to single chamber tomb transition, generally by the long slope, and the tomb Mudao connected. The more important as Yuankang nine years (299 years) Xu Meiren tomb, the tomb passage length more than 37 meters, the tomb of square, the arc-shaped convex, four corner stone column, is arranged in two Shimen corridor. The tomb is still remaining Jinhua ornaments, copper utensils, iron Dao, stone account base and the epitaph. Large tombs of this period were generally in pottery, pottery tomb beast, livestock, carts, model burial and multi barrel, pottery utensils. During this period, hierarchical, various types of tombs discovered, is important to the study of the social system. Another important finding in the Wei and Jin Dynasties tomb tomb excavations for Hexi area. Mainly concentrated in the Jiuquan area, Dunhuang. The tombs, usually cluster burial, burial arranged in an orderly manner, the Cemetery outside the walled, are digging tomb chamber in Gobi.
Media attention and comments

China and Egypt, Mesopotamia, India as the cradle of human civilization. In the four birthplace of ancient culture, preserved most system, the most complete, but we China. Five thousand years of Chinese culture is not only a large number of text materials, and have very rich unearthed cultural relics, including exquisite beyond compare of bronze, jade, ceramics, sculpture, painting and other works of art, crafts and so on. This is our precious wealth left by our ancestor. Inherit and carry forward our excellent cultural heritage, is the new century our generation publisher bounden duty. In 1994, Xuelin press Museum in Shaanxi province support energetically below, published a large senior atlas "Mr. Wang Renbo editor of the Sui and Tang Dynasties culture", as illustrated, in the form of a graph, a vivid reflection of the performance and the two dynasties cultural essence, by experts and general readers widely good pry. The past times want to continue operating system on the five thousand afternoon culture in the form of the same essence of introduction, the reappearance of the glorious and resplendent and development path, so have the overall conception of the "five thousand years of Chinese culture series". "Five thousand years of Chinese Culture Series" to be published in eight volumes, they are: "primitive culture", "Shang Zhou Culture", "Qin and Han culture", "Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui and Tang Dynasties culture" "culture", "culture", and "culture of Ming Dynasty", "Qing Dynasty culture". This series of Atlas Compilation of national first class invited experts, they have cultural relics, archeology, history and other aspects of the profound marriage and know only positive experience of aramid fiber. Experts and scholars to participate in compiling and Publishing House agreed, this set of books embody the highest level of writing, research results and the latest archaeological, and first-class color pictures, novel layout design, exquisite printing and binding to make, realize the unity of academic, intellectual, aesthetic, practical. "Series" every book shows, an integral part of both the history of five thousand years of history, reflect.Continuity, is a unique existence in the history of five thousand years of cultural history, reflects the unique style, in many ancient cultural research books, with distinct characteristics and its permanent value and become an independent school. "Five thousand years of Chinese Culture Series" by the press and Shanghai science and Technology Education Press common editing publishing. This is also exploring a beneficial attempt press cooperation under the situation of reform and opening-up. For the possible problems and deficiencies in the book, warmly welcome criticism.
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