"China aesthetic culture history (pre Qin Han Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties roll roll)" published by Shandong Pictorial Publishing house.
Prehistoric had such as the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic (including pottery, jade) in different age stages in the evolution of human demarcation, respectively in Yuanmou, Lantian, Beijing, upper cave man, determine the Yangshao, Longshan, er, periods of regional culture, change and blood family, the matriarchal clan, the paternal clan, tribe, tribal alliance and other social organizations. The creation of human culture is the import spark in this step by step in the development of. Chinese aesthetic culture, but also in the prehistoric stage played its first movement. As a kind of more resort to psychological pleasure, form of sensory and emotional imagination special cultural phenomena in human culture, as human beings, brewing gradually in practice initiation consciousness and creation, aesthetic culture production, its upper limit may be slightly later than the material culture. "Humanization of nature" as the definition of the culture in its broad sense, can be said to be from a human in stone to strike the first human traces began, and aesthetic culture, but attack during or after a series of stone in the human. Since then, the aesthetic culture. Chinese early, with the steps of the development of human culture, in the prehistoric generations of ancestors created "works". Discussion and analysis of prehistoric culture, is a confusing but fascinated fascinating things. "Prehistoric" concept, is a civilized country boundaries for the sociology, is more of a recorded as historical concept boundaries. As a period of time before the cut-off point, traces of prehistoric culture do not have written down; as it is too an era, today we can hardly see a from that time the passage of treasures. However, human culture is the creation of some trace, prehistoric human consciousness, about beauty for beauty and painstaking efforts, in fact, "write" dug out from the ground in the future remains. As some scholars have passionately praised, "ancient culture, stars are shining in the sky in the underground, and to the people of the blink of an eye!" Then a polished smooth the fine stone ball, one of the color pottery, pottery painted patterns, there are a variety of image sculpt, grave put ornaments, musical instruments and so on, are durable and very precious artistic treasures, symbols and messages but also for us, to decipher, found inside the. Can make "works" is the symbol of human being, can think in the language and communication, is more a result of the evolution of human culture. Prehistoric man can't use words to record, but can tell "stories" in language; material entity "work" time of wind and rain in the underground, silent, using human language to create culture, but after a few generations teach orally, and the text was written down. The ancient myths and legends is that people can still be seen from the literature. Even before being written, they must again and again with spiritual content in each era, but after layers of peeling, or can we find prehistoric human aesthetic emotion and discourse, and the interpretation of the other "works", provide a "text". Of course, the aesthetic culture prehistoric period despite the long, after all, has been in the human mind, consciousness and feelings are still not mature level, it always is the childhood of mankind. Thinking chaos, I not, not only determines the prehistoric human aesthetic activity "accidentally" and freedom, for what one sees and hears everything they made have made, giving people's "soul", "feeling" and "will", Superman and then superimposed on this. "". Therefore, this is an animistic era, is also a worship the gods of the era, the unconscious aesthetic emotion, doping in these subjective imagination content. So, the painting, the prehistoric pinch various pictures and other figure, generally not seem bizarre, and some very realistic, but there are some "is different from the descendants of understanding", some "means", are influenced only they can see God's aura. Chinese prehistoric aesthetic culture is accompanied by the slow process of evolution, human ancestors, with both hands, with childish imagination, gradually approaching to the civilization era. During this period, its development course of course should be from the simple to the relatively complex, more interested in unintentionally to, from rough to fine roughly, we here as long as the underground excavation of cultural relics on display time sequence one one, you will find, they are carried out. 1 red ornaments: cavemen budding aesthetic messages before the early detection of relics of Yuanmou people, the old stone age, about 70-20 million years ago Beijing was the earliest ancient human Chinese living representatives, while in Beijing to explore the human skull fossils of Zhoukoudian dragon bone hill top, archaeologists have unearthed a belonging to the late Paleolithic homo sapiens human remains, which is often called the upper cave man. The same mountain up and down, the people of Beijing and the upper cave man time distance but across thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years. The hundreds of thousands of years no white, about 18000 years ago the upper cave man has been able to tell us a lot of aesthetic culture news. Of course, is pregnant with the human aesthetic consciousness, long before the cave people, the experience and feeling, it has slowly been brewing. Stone: Beauty conceived this is a fairly long process, if the human culture relics left from Yuanmou to date, which lasted over about one million years, accounted for more than 90% of the time in prehistoric times; it is also a very hidden is not easy to be found in the process, before us in front of the "works", in addition to a pile of pile of cold stone -- by primitive man as a tool to use stone, the stone ball and so on, no second objects. However, these dumb stone, but with the shape change them to us, "tells the story of" the ancient human is what a little bit, a little bit, the accumulation of "creation" experience, explore the beautiful law, is how to obtain joy and comfort from the. About 1700000 years ago the people of Yuanmou stone, can be roughly seen edge uneven, this is artificial traces, hammering method at the top left of course, this is the need for expert appraisal to see, most people still difficult to find the difference between them and natural stone. The natural stone which is used for a particular purpose, even if only a few, but a clear declaration of human birth. The people of Yuanmou have never like animal that only by instinct, in difficult to adaptEnvironmental life in combat, they let the back of the two leg supporting the body, the foot force gas freeing both hands, trying to better to sustain life substance use food. The hand chipped out of the stone, he became the first to prove that this effort we can see today. Distinguishes man from animal of the most fundamental factors -- thinking, consciousness, and also in the forced out of the "idea" quietly breeding. Just imagine, if not in how much time throwing beat gradually aware of "hard", "edge" and so on the role of performance, how can they think of choosing stones, and put them with angular things? This option, the certain form hazy understanding, and with this knowledge to the hands move over, is the thought content of the original. Broadly speaking, Yuanmou people this is to create activities, just this kind of creation is too simple, relatively free, no processing, also does not see some form elements should have rules, principles, mode of aesthetic creation, not to mention the experience emotional imagination and aesthetic psychological beyond function the unique. Hundreds of thousands of years, people in Lantian stone has signs of two processing and preliminary classification. After the membership year, to Beijing people, the stone was significantly increased, and explore together, a total of more than one hundred thousand pieces. Especially from can be seen in several types of fixed. Disk shaped rectangular thin and sharp scraper, hard and thick cut chop, and clear sharp stone cone and so on, the production process and a method different from, respectively, such as wood, hit play off, stripping, mining root different "duties". Style classification, means that humans after long-term practice, thinking becomes relatively complicated, there has been to the object forms and characteristics of cognition and feeling, can according to the specific need, consciously make tools out of style. To some extent, this also is in "the intrinsic (internal) standard applied to object to create" (Marx "Economics Philosophy Manuscript in 1844 --", Zhu Guangqian Evans, load "aesthetic" magazine second, fifth pages, Shanghai literature and Art Publishing House, 1980), i.e. according to certain purpose of law in the creation of. Then, they certainly will get from this creation to achieve the purpose of the meeting and excitement, the excitement level, should be no less than the people of our time to praise a art treasures. About 100000 years ago in Dingcun, Xu Jia Jiao, in addition to further explore the stone convenience, effective function form, and the pursuit of neatly, perfect craftsmanship on them. In some pieces of Dingcun, can clearly see the traces of repair table, small tip for them, some edge is making quite flush. Xu Jia Jiao's "masterpiece" is a stone ball. They were descendants of unearthed more than 1000 stone ball, some up to 100 mm in diameter, weighing more than 1500 g; some diameter below 50 mm, weighing less than 50 grams. It is not difficult to imagine, these balls are sent in different field, the large, used to throw the most appropriate, the ball can reach, its weight can be throwing animal killed; the small, might be "fly stone rope" on the projectile. These large and small stone ball, all round, all covered with little stones from the stone scar, scar, you can "hear" it repeatedly knocked "clink" sound. Undeniable, the first essential meaning they so elaborate that good, but in the next beat sound, you can say that is not in accordance with the mind of "beauty" in the style, passionately "carving" their "art"? Not far from the Zhiyu man and upper cave man, the stone products is made great development, not only complex shapes, single scraper and round, discoid, bilateral, unilateral edge edge points. And the composite dust with axe shaped stone knives and stones for bow arrowheads. More notably, here also found a perforation of the graphite decorations, indicates that over millions of years of accumulation, primitive man on the form of feeling, will be from the simple function, gradually closer to the aesthetic level. Graves: "soul" of the witness from the above date can be seen, the aesthetic factors of the ancient human is in a long gestation Paleolithic in slow growing. Even so, we still have to put the upper cave man's culture as a true embryonic prehistoric aesthetic culture, still say they first made aesthetic news, is that they are the first to burial form, is a spiritual activity traces of people "face", not only in ancient fossils form, and we began to "meet" and "dialogue". The top cave ruins cave people in Zhoukoudian mountain, as the late Paleolithic cultural heritage, their stone does not seem to be typical, we found only 25 pieces, but in a cave where people live, but found a fine spicules. Pinhole is incomplete, broken holes are also clearly visible, this is a tiny tip like device to fine had dug out; the needle body well preserved, ca. 82 mm, slightly curved body slender, scraping very smooth, has been extended to thin needle. If no pair has very dexterous hands, no process is relatively complex, is hard to imagine you can build such sophisticated "works". This should be the same mature stone manufacturing accompanies together. Spicules told us of course more than these. The needle is used to wear. It is reminiscent of the first is the clothes. Of course, the skin wear together can also be used to build homes, resist cold, but for burrowing Shanding cave people, spicule is should be used to sew the cover object. From the animal like strip oneself naked, to put on the clothes, the human which is toward the direction of civilization a step forward. A variety of cultural relics, relic has shown that human clothing, first covered seems to be sexual organs, which are the product of taboo, the cavemen spicules Is it right? Told us, they have completed the pure natural promiscuity miscegenation stage and the most primitive blood family, started to implement ban parents marriage outside the family marriage? The initial formation of the clan society, means that the original culture will go beyond mere factors of production level, into the spiritual content and social factors. Their tombs are the most powerful proof. Cavemen cave is divided into the upper chamber, the lower chamber, under the cellar, four parts, the upper chamber for cavemen livedPlace, the lower chamber is buried the dead buried. Cave sites found three more complete human skull and bones of trunk, quietly lying here. However, their side and dead silence, not only the body and around are full of red hematite, and many had used objects, wearing ornaments to accompany. It is not difficult to see, the upper cave man to bury the dead, must be after a careful "design". This is the first tomb ever found in China, it is so much a tomb mind. This is the tomb, suddenly for us to explore that human minds, opened the first window. First of all, in the early ancient human relics, have never seen the unburied dead traces, why the Shanding cave people here, the dead had been so carefully placed down, the attachment of funerary objects burial form? The most logical inference is only, they have considered a body and a soul, life and death problem, and from the childish feeling and ignorance of the reasoning in the immortality of the soul of the conclusion. The soul, is a later religious concept are given, it initially in ancient human there called what, we will also can make nothing of it. But the soul and spirit, and it was the primitive religious concept generally dominate the prehistory of human spiritual activities. In the first give birth to such a consciousness of the ancients, it's probably just some filling in human body and can leave the person spirit away something, something that his body can move vitality, a and his body different "he". Presumably, when human thinking began to think of themselves, and there are too many do not understand, this awareness does not have strange. For example, it is to lie down and sleep, the dream of the "I" is always a strange journey; for instance, serious illness, people have be at one's last gasp, after disease, but is exuberant, the spirit, the meat "clutch" phenomenon repeated, a people called the "soul" of the East Xi also slowly in the original minds in the formation of the. Anthropologist Taylor is from sleep, dream, illusion, trance, disease, death in these physiological phenomenon, first discusses the concept of the soul of the primitive people. Engels from the soul, find the ancient people's "soul" concept: in ancient times, people don't know structure of his body, and influenced by the dream, so I have an idea: they are thinking and feeling is not their physical activity, but a kind of unique in this body, and left the body soul in death time activities...... Since the soul leaves the body at death and people continue to live, then there is no reason to suppose it will die; then the immortality of soul concept. ("Marx Engels collection" volume fourth, 219th pages, people's publishing house, 1997) the immortality of the soul, means that the deceased may live in another world; and the dead, and is a close member of their clan, which requires the living for him with care and love, after all, life and death at the time of the human there, limit is quite fuzzy, the spirit of people to the living, is not possible without affecting the. Shanding cave people put their dead loved ones buried in the lower chamber, and made a series of living arrangements, should be the result of thinking. Hematite: the light of life in this way, the hematite is express volumes. Why in each of the dead body and surrounding, are sprinkled with hematite? Interpretation may be various, such as red protection that makes the beast feared dead, body is not violated, is a solution. But the more reasonable explanation should be connected with the concept of the soul. According to Taylor's analysis, the original is probably the most intuitive way, also may be deduced from the dead at the scene, such as the vitality of the soul is probably escape from breathing nostrils and a bleeding wound in the soul, even breath or circulating in the blood in the body. ("religion theory" page ninety-seventh, Chinese Social Science Press, 1989) hematite in red, it is the color of blood, it is not clear is a soul or is the symbol of life? Until then, aesthetic factors really just appeared, although it is very quiet, but also mixed in the primitive religious consciousness. In a sense, is a kind of aesthetic tend to be subjective and emotional thought activities, including aesthetic creation and appreciation. The former is a purposeful creation, which is the subjective psychological imagination as a medium for emotional satisfaction. In the upper cave man here, hematite, red, is not only itself, still imagine has been given life meaning, "was given a human (SOCIAL) concept meaning unique symbolic" (Li Zehou "the beautiful course" page fourth, Heritage Press, 1981), also the aesthetic significance. Upper cave man red accessories, of course, more direct "aesthetic" or those who accompany with the dead. The first "exhibition which is China's Neolithic decorative arts". In the most conspicuous position of probably the seven small stone beads, they are scattered in the vicinity of the skull, has not been polished so spheronization like today's Pearl, but similar in size, with hole center drill, apparently to wear even before the next Kung fu. It is not difficult to suppose, that this is a precious tiara, was the day wore on the head, showing off its beauty. More notably, their surfaces are hematite dyed, that when people advocate the red color, more adds to its charm. In addition, unique is a only perforation of the small gravel, it is to use natural oval shaped greenish igneous rocks from both sides, flat, side obviously after artificial buffing, smooth, central to the hole drilling, should also be used to wear rope. It seems that this is a kind of wear ornaments, with the archaeologist's words, is "like a modern woman chest heart-shaped" (Jia Lanpo, "" Beijing people "home" page forty-first, Beijing University Press, 1958). Only had found a submerged, if not years, can only say that it was also very rare. The most clear is the burial accessories, is the "string" display made of ivory in the dead of the "necklace". Relatively speaking, animal teeth small, itself was smooth, is "natural" sculpture ". 141 pieces of decorative unearthed in the cave.In the product, the teeth of beasts made ornaments are majority, a total of 125 pieces of. They are the badger, fox, deer, wild cats, small carnivorous animal teeth, all sides in the root part of the binding of digging, apparently to come in handy.
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