The second chapter outlines the history of cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries: the period of development of the Chinese nation in the long history of the Wei and Jin Dynasties, exchanges with the outside world, can be traced back to the ancient times. Archaeological evidence, in the early civilization dawn period, today China frontier residents, with foreign tribes have been cultural contact. These cultural contact, whether on land or sea,, all cannot do without the media traffic, cannot do without the silk road. In the history of mankind, silk pride, which belongs to the China. As early as 7000 years ago, living in the China mainland people, know the wire. Archaeological predecessors Xia Nai the authority level, with his scholars pointed out: careful, in the Shang Dynasty, namely before 4000, Chinese have mastered the secret of silk. In fact, Zhejiang Wu Xingqian Yang found a ribbon, silk and silk etc. the residual film in Neolithic site. The scholars identified, preliminary think, this is silk fabric. Chinese silk and silk, with its exquisite is famous in the world, enduring. In twentieth Century 70 in the early 1980s, archaeological excavations in the process of Changsha famous Mawangdui Han tomb, unearthed in first Century BC, the Han Dynasty silk. A yarn clothes, residual 1.28 meters long, weighing only 49 grams. The Tang Dynasty, a Arabia merchant to Chinese, met with foreign trade officials in Guangzhou. Through the Chinese officials silk clothes, the merchant of Arabia could see his chest nevus. As the Arab marvel, think across the double silk clothes can see the chest nevus, the China officials race took 5 pieces of silk clothes. Qing Dynasty, "a dream of Red Mansions", tells the story of a story. One day, the lady Dowager find a silk from the bottom, questioning the daughter sun granddaughter, who can say this name of silk goods. Regardless of Bao Dai or spring, even have great experience of her, can't answer, ancestors proud to tell them, this is her girl things, called "soft smoke luo". Just from the name, it gives unlimited reverie beauty. Sure enough, the exquisite China silk, from the beginning of the Eurasia, people of all ethnic groups formed a wave of civilization and culture of the great.
Professor He Fangchuan, from Shandong Heze, was born in Chongqing city in January 4, 1939, in 1956 and was admitted to Peking University Oriental languages, a year later transferred to the Department of history learning. In 1962 October he stay still teaches, served as assistant, lecturer, associate professor, Professor, tutor of doctoral students, has been USA Dickinson college and the City University Hong Kong invited as a visiting professor, in 2004 by the Japan obirin university awarded an honorary doctorate from 1988 to 1992 He Fangchuan served as director of Asian and African larse Department Department of history, from 1992 to 1995 served as director of the Department of history; from 1995 to 1997 served as president of the Overseas Education College of Peking University; 199From 6 to 2002 served as vice president of the Peking University, a former Party committee; 1999 concurrently archives curator; 2001 part-time history museum curator; since 2002, served as deputy director of the Council, Dean, Dean of the Peking University School of foreign language education in the Asia Pacific Research Institute of Peking University, member of Academic Committee, Peking University degree committee. He also served as the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council in history, deputy head of the expert group of the National Social Science Fund subject of world history deputy team leader, deputy director, Department of History Education Steering Committee China historiography Association vice president, Beijing City Social Science Association vice chairman, Beijing city history society, China Asia Pacific Association vice president and so.
Coil a language: always baton first chapter: the special status of civilization, culture and cultural exchanges a culture and civilization two cultural exchange and civilization junction of the three cultural exchange: violence and war four cultural exchange in the "false" and "Misreading" peaceful exchange: five in the globalization Chinese cultural banner outlining the second chapter of history on the cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries -- Han Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties during the formation of the ancient Silk Road on the land of two maritime the Silk Road cultural exchange during the period of the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Ming and Qing Dynasties -- spread of land development and decline of the Silk Road to development and prosperity two maritime Silk Road three since the Tang and Song Dynasty cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries fourth chapter of Western learning and the European Science in the three Chinese Wei and the northern and Southern Dynasties period third chapter in the history of Sino foreign cultural exchanges (1582-1793) social factors of the descendants of the western scientific knowledge Er Kang Yong Qian period of Western science and the dissemination of the western learning spreading three during the Ming and Qing Dynasties Chinese - Northeast fifth chapter has a long history of cultural exchange between China and Korea (DPRK) an ancient cultural exchange the unique history of ancient China and South Korea (two to three) and cultural exchanges between China and Korea (DPRK) modern cultural exchange all of The new century China and Korea (DPRK) cultural exchange the sixth chapter climax to the cultural exchange between China and Japan in an ancient cultural exchange between China and Japan -- before and after the first climax of second century cultural exchange between China and Japan -- to second, the third climax as the center of three modern cultural exchange between China and Japan -- the fourth climax and the rise of fading four contemporary Japanese cultural exchange -- the fifth climax of be just unfolding China - South Asia, seventh chapters long, add radiance and beauty to each other -- Chinese and Vietnam Laos, Kampuchea cultural exchange a Sino Vietnamese relations source and early economic and cultural association two Vietnam's Vietnam Trade and cultural relations between the two countries in the third more extensive development of enlightenment and in the process of modern development in close contact with the four peace, friendly, mutually beneficial in the old cultural exchange five good neighborly mutual, climax of the bilateral cultural exchange the eighth chapter in friendly cultural exchange between China and Thailand has a long history of ancient Sino Thai relations of two rich and colorful cultural exchange between China and Thailand three modern cultural exchange between China and Thailand in the Thai cultural exchange karma ninth chapter in cultural exchange has a long history of a bilateral cultural exchange advantages in World War II During the Qin and Han Dynasties in cultural exchanges between the three dynasties of Tang and Song dynasties in cultural exchanges between the four bilateral cultural exchange five yuan in cultural exchange six during the Ming and Qing Dynasties seven during the period of the Republic of China cultural exchanges between cultural exchange eight new China after the establishment of bilateral cultural exchange the tenth chapter Ambilight China Indonesia cultural religious two language and literature three music dance and building four, medical, ceramics and production technology in Indonesian cultural exchange eleventh chapter: the characteristics of the cultural exchange between China and India two thousand years one or two Han Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties two dynasties of Ming and Qing Dynasties to Tang three modern China - West - Africa article in the twelfth chapter the Silk Road Chinese and Iran cultural exchange history in ancient Iran two in Iraq the friendly exchanges between the three through Iran to China religious dissemination four cultural exchanges fruitful in Chapter thirteenth, the Silk Road through the day long the Great Wall -- Arabia Chinese and cultural exchanges in the World World II, 'a Arabia relations history outline "three ancient Arab cultural exchanges and mutual influence between the four" the Koran "translation five Arabia literature in the Chinese the fourteenth chapter on the more difficult in a non cultural fax. At sea 曲甘英 for crossing no boat two two great ancient civilizations in the Hellenistic world embarrassing "contact" three Chinese silk and the eastern Mediterranean dress culture four Chinese and Africa direct ties -- Maritime Silk Road in the Tang and Song dynasties at the five China Africa exchanges region significantly expanded, six Chinese "four great inventions" human Africa and Egypt in exchange position 七陆 tract seaway are smooth in Yuan Dynasty non cultural exchange eight Zheng He West opened up a new period and Africa exchanges nine modern China and African culture to seep through ten generation, cultural exchanges and friendly cooperation transmitted China - Europe fifteenth chapter Sino French cultural historical revelation two Chinese civilization contribution to the French Enlightenment three in mid nineteenth Century to mid twentieth Century in French of large-scale interactive four recent development: French cultural fusion and other Sixteenth Chapters of dragons and Eagle - the history of German national culture "to a China": Johann Leibniz elbow generation two Rococo wind Chinese cultural complex ": three the eye sight, permanent is the East": Goethe - generation four cultural collision: "image" five change of cultural compatibility: "to the East pressed "And" learning from the west "six culture legend:" Serva detective "and" Nie Hai Hua "seven cultures crystallization: Tongji University and German Society seventeenth chapter Transformation -- eighteenth Century century cultural and political exchanges a before eighteenth Century two eighteenth Century English exchanges in the cultural exchange between the three mid eighteenth Century in the UK China negative evaluation of four at the end of eighteenth Century Macartney to China and its impact on the eighteenth chapter of cultural exchange between China and Russia from the ancient to the seventeenth Century Sino Russian cultural exchange in eighteenth Century two of cultural exchanges between China and Russia in nineteenth Century three in Russian cultural exchange in twentieth Century four of the nineteenth chapter of cultural exchanges between China and Russia Chinese and Spanish -- literature communication and interaction in a Chinese literature Spanish two Spanish literature in China China - America twentieth chapters across the Pacific and Latin America -- China cultural exchanges to pull ancient culture contact to explore two Manila galleon opened in early culture communication channel three descendants of Pacific American crops andIts influence on the Chinese diet culture four "cooly trade" and Chinese, overseas Chinese to Latin America, contribute to the development of the twenty-first chapter China culture in USA early dissemination and influence of culture on the effect of a Chinese American enlightenment two China crops and plants to USA spread three Chinese art introduction propagation in the Afterword @##@ America The historical image of cultural exchange, is very difficult to master. Firstly, it is dynamic, not static. Since the human society since carries, always in the dynamic development. It is difficult to grasp the dynamic, giving its diversity. In the numerous racial, ethnic, national and regional development, human society has according to the natural conditions and social conditions of each other and have other many development channel: some fast development, had reached a peak of time, and then quickly slipped the boundless night; some have the distinctive, trace, but due to some natural disaster or war "evaporation"; some have experienced setbacks, circuitous and even retrogression, but pushing forward despite repeated frustrations, Millennium arteries, constantly create brilliant; some is always in the history of the ups and downs and catch up from behind, and so on. The variety of dynamic, caused the law of development of human society since ancient times the unbalanced phenomenon, but also to make the basic background of cultural exchange. Secondly, it is solid, rather than a plane. Human civilization and culture in different areas, different nations, creation, are the same with the human society itself, is a structure of three-dimensional network type. Because of this, between the civilization and culture exchange, is also a natural three-dimensional network type. If the cognition and understanding of plane type just for them, people's cultural exchange, is pale, far from the perplexing very bright. As usual, we culture can be divided into material (objects), three large category system, spirit, and to know the special category of it there are numerous, emerge in an endless stream. When civilization asked collision, contact between the different cultural connotation, between the three categories with many special category, the inevitable communication, apparently also a three-dimensional network. If again to the depth of thinking, it is not hard to see, when the collision of cultures, civilizations, even the most simple, the most direct and easy exchange of matter (artifacts) culture, which also materialized rich institutional civilization and spiritual civilization content. At the same time, institutional and spiritual culture connotation asked collision, exchange, also contains the substance (artifacts) cognition and understanding of the different natural environment and social environment of culture for the. Third, it is bidirectional and multidirectional, rather than unidirectional. In the discussion of cultural exchanges, people generally pay attention to two-way interaction it. This cognitive, compared to the single cognitive one sidedness, paranoid, subjectivity, the nature is a big step. On this basis, it further discusses the imbalance, this two-way interaction is: in a particular period of time, different civilizations and cultures meet, the civilization and culture of one at a higher stage of development, to another culture ink sweep down irresistibly from a commanding height inclined "type culture surplus". However, when we carefully examine the bidirectional movement, will find that, in addition to the ancient period of human society in the lower of the original state of development and possible two-way movement of relatively pure, accompanied by the development of human society, the classical era as the cultural exchange between, already contains a large number of third, fourth but the giant more cultural connotation, and cultural exchange way, is in fact a multidirectional interaction. This also from another side, prove that three-dimensional network model of cultural exchange. Fourth, the Chinese national cultural exchanges with the outside world, the brilliant cultural surplus phenomenon is often see things in a blur. When people focus on the phenomenon of cultural exchange between China, there are actually many important things are often obscured by the. Discover and explore these easily masked stranger field, the most important value. For example, in the system, the spirit, the Chinese nation does not seem to be super large, on the contrary, there are "cultural deficit" big enough. For example, in ancient times, Buddhist, Islamic civilization flow in Chinese, even Christian civilization has also been in Chinese territory once "over a hundred Temple City", and the range Chinese Confucianism spread is limited to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Vietnam and the modern Singapore and Southeast Asian minorities; again, even on the material level culture, compared with silk, porcelain and the four great inventions of the complex is the product of labor, in the field of material culture that relatively simple labor, the Chinese nation is afraid also is "cultural deficit" in the column. The content is so rich and colorful, difficult to grasp the history of cultural exchange, nature is not able to complete the one or two generation. This is a relay race, the people of all ethnic groups share the barrier of human race. On the history of Sino foreign cultural exchanges, China learn human responsibility is obligatory, in addition to their own to bear, should constantly explore, cooperation with foreign counterparts. The history of cultural communication study, writing itself, is also a history of cultural exchange! This is a long way to go before the relay race, the ancients, after the newcomers. A good editor, you master generation senior co-operation that book, is in front of us the relay baton; we took the stick, to sprint, do the best a heart and power. This is a great loss, since the book was published to date, it has to ask the next bar to comment. I believe firmly that, this will relay race, a rod, a rod must be more excellent than the more perfect, more close to the human history cultural exchange that rich, complex, in different poses and with different expressions of true.
"The history of Sino foreign cultural exchanges (volume one)" published by International Culture Publishing Corporation.
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