The history of communication between China and Western countries

Date of publication:2012-5   Press: Social Science Document Press   Author:Zhang Guogang   Pages:167   Words:109000  
Preface

The copyright page: (three) the 多立克东 tour record on par with Marco Polo and another to the great medieval travellers in China is the doric. He began to move east in 1318, arrived in India in 1321 1322 ~ 1328 travel in china. In 1330 May he dictated to end months ago Asia trip. According to the length, which is about Chinese Khitan and "barbarians" narrative accounted for about 34%. O do Lidtke describes China than other people more attention to the political aspect, but he lets you focus on the image of sweat. He went to great lengths to describe the rally in parameter order, the emperor of the scene, the military and hunting, the inn of the fast etc.. He said the administrative division of the empire into 12 Province, a province in 2000 cities, not including the 5000 islands. Many descriptions are directly or indirectly related with sweat. However, the works of Doric Khan, but abstract ruler image, rather like the Marco Polo record that is a specific character name. O do Lidtke described the landform is part and the rulers of the relationship, he introduced the court building decoration magnificent, reflects the owner's wealth and power. On the other part of the city landscape is introduced, he did not like to any other area of China so frequently and sometimes even trivially introduced the city, urban China grand, beautiful and many people left a deep impression on him, make him amazed. Also described for economy and folk custom authors, such as some of the basic food and specialty, peculiar way of fishing. On the contrary, the religious customs introduced just a foil, although he is a courageous Franciscan friar. Some statistics, the Doric used 58 evaluative lexis in his report, the evaluation on people and the environment, with a positive evaluation of the Khitan and "barbarians," the most.From the content point of view, first of all is the scenery, followed by the city, wealth, he also praised the Chinese man, man "handsome" woman "is the world's most beautiful". Like Marco Polo, the author praises just pay attention to the appearance of building and decoration, rarely evaluate the building technology and style. The author also sometimes make comparisons, and directly connects the East and West, but most are just measure data conversion. In a few cases, he also used home city and far east city comparison, he praised Guangzhou has so many boats, "the entire Italy ships are not the city's ships"; praise Hangzhou city is the biggest city in the world, "is that I can't talk about it, if I had not in Venice to meet many have been there before people"; he also said that Nanjing city has 360 bridges, "better than the whole world". In short, in comparison to the Doric emphasizes the similarity of Oriental culture with its own culture, Oriental culture and superior place sometimes.
Summary

Zhang Guogang, born in 1956, doctor of history, Professor of School of Humanities and social sciences of Tsinghua University, doctoral tutor, Tsinghua University history department director and thought culture research institute. The Ministry of education for the Changjiang Scholar Professor, member of Guidance Committee of Ministry of education, the teaching of history, the Chinese Tang History Association, deputy director of the academic committee of the China Yanhuang Culture Research Association, adjunct professor of Nankai University and Renmin University of China in College school. Had studied and taught for many years in Europe, Germany Humboldt, and many went to Germany, Britain, Japan and Hong Kong and Taiwan visits, lectures, or served as a visiting professor. The main research fields of relationship to the Sui and Tang Dynasties History, medieval system and social history, cultural history. The main works of the Tang Dynasty "official", "Tang Dynasty", "Tang Dynasty political system studies", "Buddhism and the Sui and Tang Dynasties", "family and a new perspective on the history of" (ed.), "Chinese rites controversy from the initial to" etc.. Won the "historical research" start publication thirty years outstanding paper award of Ministry of education, College of Humanities and Social Sciences outstanding achievement award two, national teaching achievement award.
Author brief introduction

China is an ancient country with a long cultural history, built from the legend of the Three Sovereigns and five emperors to the people's Republic of China, the people living in this land has never stopped exploring, the steps of creation. Changsha unearthed from Mawangdui light smoke if, as thin as cicada's wings in yarn demonstrated a the ancients have reached in silk weaving, making height; Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes nearly five hundred caves in the more than 2000 colorful statue statue and a large number of murals painted and showing the ancients made in sculpture and painting achievements; there are bronze ware, pottery, garden building, the palace building, as well as calligraphy, poetry, tea, medicine and other material and non-material cultural heritage, they have to show the world Chinese culture brilliant and gorgeous, revealed the charm of this ancient country. This is a precious heritage, is worth our each Chinese people cherish. History will not be forever favor any one nation or a country, when the world entered the modern time, once one thousand years ranked the world summit of ancient China, from the top drop. In 1840, the Opium War broke the Qing Empire of the dream of "the Celestial Empire", since China became a sheep to the slaughter by the powers. Signed an unequal treaty, not only to China's massive outflow of silver, so that more Chinese territory gradually invaded by foreign powers, the Treasury deficit, people living in dire poverty. The ancient oriental had brilliant, also evaporated with the bombardment of the Western powers gunboats, for China to step into the semi colony. Unwilling to yield Chinese people also begin to save the nation, the rich country struggle road. From the Westernization Movement to reform, fromThe Taiping Heavenly Kingdom to the revolution of 1911, from the five four movement to the new democratic revolution led by the Chinese Communist Party, the Chinese people fight on despite repeated setbacks, finally realized that "only socialism can save China, only socialism can develop China" this truth. The Chinese Communist Party led the Chinese people to remove the obstacles, the establishment of a new China, suffered from the humiliation and ravaged the Chinese people have stood up. The ancient Chinese radiate new vigor and vitality, get rid of the invaded and bullied history, stand erect in the National Forest of the world. Every Chinese people should understand the history of civilization of the Chinese nation for thousands of years, should also be more than one hundred years since the Opium War of national humiliation in mind. When we entered the globalization tide in twenty-first Century, the revolution in information technology rapid development, regional exchanges between the barrier was broken by the new communication tools such as the Internet, the world's diversity presented to the world. Any one of the world's regional inevitably exist intersection collision with more than two kinds of culture, but it is undeniable that in recent years, along with the tide of the market economy, the western culture is coming, some people only western fashion, the nation's traditional aside. A large number of young people even more than the westerners are also keen to Christmas, Valentine's day and foreign fast food, the major festivals of all ethnic groups in China as well as the basic knowledge of Chinese history, ignorant, this is the Chinese nation to realize the great renaissance of suffering. The reason for China to China, the Chinese nation has thousands of years without separation, the foundation is a legend of Chinese civilization 5000 pulse. If the discarded for thousands of years the same strain culture, and foreign culture freely disseminated, it is difficult to imagine 1300000000 people where to find the national centripetal force and cohesion. In the great cause of socialist modernization and realizing national rejuvenation, vigorously carry forward the excellent national culture and national spirit, carry forward the Chinese culture tradition of patriotism and national sense of pride, in the process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, construction has the characteristic of Chinese culture and value system, Everbright excellent traditional culture of the Chinese nation is a a long term career. At present, China has entered a new historical period of profound transformation of economic system, profound changes of social structure, a profound adjustment of the pattern of interests, profound changes in thinking. Facing the new historical task and from all sides of the new challenges, the whole Party and people need to learn and grasp the socialist core value system, further the formation of whole society is the common ideal and belief and moral, ideological and moral foundation lay the whole Party and the people struggle in unity, the formation of the whole nation to make progress in spiritual strength, this is we are building a socialist harmonious society ideological guarantee. The Chinese Academy of social sciences as a national social science research institutions, has the responsibility to contribute. We based on the compilation and publication of "the Chinese civilization history" and "Chinese history" on the organization of experts, both inside and outside the field, the recent fusion, editing and publishing major historical knowledge series - "Chinese history", the goal is for the broad masses of the people especially the youth with a complete and accurate description of Chinese history and traditional culture popularization series, so that life in the information age people especially young people can understand their own ancestral history, in the East and West cultural exchanges by friends to know good subjects covered, in the cultural exchange between China and the world is more and more deep. To maintain quality and their characteristics, the spirit of the Chinese nation and generous spirit forever carry forward. "Chinese history" series of the first 200 kinds, each 10 words, mainly from politics, economy, culture, military, philosophy, art, science and technology, food, clothing, transportation, construction and other aspects of the historical development of Chinese civilization and evolution for thousands of years from ancient times to the present. The history not only shows the five thousand years of Chinese culture is brilliant, shows the wisdom of our ancestors and spirit of creation, but also shows the unyielding and struggling spirit of the Chinese people. We sincerely hope that this set of universal knowledge of history books on the broad masses of the people to further understand the excellent cultural tradition of the Chinese nation, enhancing national self-esteem and pride to play its due role, encouraging the broad masses of the people, especially the new generation of workers and builders of Zai Jian socialism with Chinese characteristics on the road constantly giant strides for our motherland better future contribute to greater strength. Chen Kuiyuan in 2011 April
Catalogue of books

Introduction
the first chapter legend and reality -- the relationship between China and the West in the early Qin era.
A Mu Xi tour to see the queen mother of the West
two mysterious 希伯波里安
three seres and Qin Nigeria
second chapter Hu Han Moon -- during the Qin and Han Dynasties relationship between China and the west development.
a zhangqiantong Xiyu
two Gan Ying the Daqin
three silk road
third chapter Buddha world - Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties cultural exchange.
a entering the middle
two Buddhist scriptures translation
three.
four westbound method of Buddhism and Chinese traditional culture collision
five Buddhist Gandhara art
fourth chapter of the silk road the rain of flowers, Sui Tang era of cultural relations between China and the West.
a land and sea traffic
two Xuan Zang and Yi Jing - Buddhism culture continues eastward
three minority language and cultural communication in
four Changan in the Tang Dynasty and the Western civilization
fifth chapter Arabian sea ship -- the five generation of the Song Liaojin era of Chinese and Western culture the relationship between
ten to twelfth Century western area power and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries
two incense porcelain road and the South China Sea Trade
three Song Dynasty foreigners
four four the West
sixth chapters across the Eurasian - Yuan Dynasty's cultural exchange.
a Mongol conquests
two European reaction and the relationship between the East and the West.
three travelers in the eyes of Chinese
four yuan and the Islamic culture.
seventh chapter age variation - Ming Dynasty cultural relations turning
a Zheng
two the opening of new routes and European colonial powers to the East
thirty-sixth Century Europe of knowledge about China.
four Matteo Ricci missionary
five Xu Guangqi and Western technology.
eighth chapters make light interaction on - Qing Dynasty East and east to west.
a Ming and Qing Dynasties the
two East - West culture input
three rites controversy: the conflict between Chinese and Western culture.
forty-seven in Europe in eighteenth Century, China's knowledge about
five East learn West -- the influence of Chinese culture on Europe

postscript @##@ bibliography The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is the core area of the formation and development of Chinese civilization, and gradually spread. The natural geography of the relative independence for the stable and sustained development of the Chinese civilization and plays an important role, but it is never closed, and south of the Buddhist culture, located in the west of West Asia and North Africa Islamic culture and Christian culture European exchange unbroken. Zhang Qian of the Han Dynasty through the western regions, the Western religious culture collection of Changan, the Yuan Dynasty established across the Eurasian Empire, the Ming and Qing Dynasties Western business and religious forces came to the East, is the four climax of Chinese and Western cultural exchange. "Chinese and western communication history" in pursuit of the ancestors footprint, the Mu Xi tour, Tang's monk West, Gen Gi Khan West, Zheng He's voyages, records and cultural relics, tells the story of the history of the ancient Chinese civilization and Western civilization exchange, collision and nourishing each other. "Chinese and western communication history" written by Zhang Guogang.
Chapter excerpt

The summer of 1994 from Germany returned, I taught history of relations between China and Western culture, and began to recruit this aspect research students in 1998. In 1996 Mr Gao Shiyu about, wrote "collision" of Chinese and Western civilization this reader. Later I host a Ministry of education materials project, in 2006 published "history of relations between China and Western culture". Now this "communication of Chinese and Western history" is based on the old version of the revised version. This book is about the "West", is a gradual historical geography and cultural concept. A large sailing before the human important area of civilization, in addition to China as the center of the East Asian cultural circle, with India as the center of the South (Hinduism and Buddhism) cultural ring, West Asia North Africa (Islam) culture and European (Christian) cultural ring, which belong to the "West" range; the most important is the source the four major civilizations, three other civilized area in the west of china. In the history of European civilization, relationship with West Asia, North Africa and India civilization very close. First is the linguistics, Indo European common in far off India and the British Isles, Rhine River and connected into a whole; second is the religious, Greek religion, Hinduism, ancient Persian religion (Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism), Judaism, Christianity and Islam thought generality or historical connection, as the cognition of things in common our academic circles; Asia and Mediterranean area, surrounding and the related common myths, knowledge, but also the undeniable fact. In addition, there is war disputes: from the Hellenistic, Persian Wars, the Crusades, created a comprehensive European culture. The ancient Greek culture is the source of European culture, the Macedonian king Alexander gave the West Asia and North Africa experienced the Hellenistic age long, although the residents of these areas have their own rich culture, Greek culture can not replace the local culture, but both left many traces of fusion. Holy Rome Empire culture not only inherits the classical heritage of Athens and Rome, and the convergence of the ESCWA region culture. The European Christian civilization with a strong Western cultural spirit, even in many respects the annihilation of Greek culture tradition. Rome through military conquest to spread across Europe is such a comprehensive civilization, in the year 1000 and spread throughout Europe today. That year 600 to 1100, the European classical tradition culture by. Therefore, the European medieval culture is actually a mixture of the Near East and Greece and Rome culture. In the late Middle Ages, the Renaissance was the Greek culture appears in Europe, but in Arabia culture as the intermediary to re appear. The medieval Byzantine Culture, Western characteristics and the Hellenistic age features more obvious. And all these culture related things, in the eyes of the Chinese people are "west". In view of this, the "West" is the culture of the Chinese people in the eyes of. Chinese people have always liked and the "West" for inventions right, first right, Buddhism introduced into when they make "father of Hu Jing" jokes; after the modern western science and technology culture, and "strange" in Western sources ". Of course, the Europeans about Chinese culture pottery West, West, Chinese civilization originated in Egyptian hieroglyphs, also heard the strange. Even in modern times, a patent dispute civilization has gradually died down, people in China still to the relationship of body to mediate "medium", "West" of the respective position (in the west, make foreign things serve China). However, the Chinese people almost never with the "East" and the occurrence of similar disputes. Because in the East Asian world, Chinese culture has long been in the dominant position to output. Here, it also involves the Chinese world view. There is a perception that the academic circles, that the ancient Chinese "world view" self, the ancients believed the Chinese empire is the only human civilization, or the only higher civilization. That Chinese traditional culture is a supercilious, rejection of all culture. This view is one-sided, because it ignores the eyes of the Chinese people "western" concept. And the ancient Chinese world view has some important concepts need to be clear about, such as "four -" and "the world" and "hopeless". The ancient Chinese on the human living the "world" (the world) understanding, there are three different levels: the first level refers only to "Chinese", the so-called "the world rise and fall, everyone is responsible for", "world" is the chinese. Second levels including Chinese and four Americans (Yi Di), composed of the ancient Chinese "the world", the world order is to maintain the tributary, the level of "the world" is roughly equivalent to today's East Asian world. The third levels include "hopeless" generally refers to the distant, preserve of the western world, but not including the area of East asia. Although the Chinese people mainly in the first and second used on the significance of "the world" concept, but cannot deny the Chinese people of the western world (preserve) the hazy understanding. The modern concept of simply, there is an "East Asian world" and "the western world in ancient China" (preserve) concept, the East Asian world enveloped within the Chinese cultural circle, is the main content of Chinese "world view". In the East Asian world, ancient China's national policy in pursuit of a dominant culture to meet. For members of the East Asian world,Just accept the Chinese etiquette and culture, it can be incorporated into a tributary state status. Otherwise, there may be a war of conflict. Because the security concept of the ancient state, but with the culture and values of the similarities and differences to determine, cultural identity is the key factor to determine whether the national security. In a word, Chinese and Western cultural exchange history, is the Chinese culture and foreign culture understanding, exchanges and dialogue history, is the Chinese culture and the other dialogue history. I hope this book can express this topic in case. Zhang Guogang in February 2, 2012
Postscript

"Chinese and western communication history" rigorous structure, content is novel, illustrated, with emphasis on the theory combined with practice, operational art creativity and performance techniques, scientific and practical.
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  •   Very interested in Chinese and western communication history
  •   To have a preliminary understanding of the knowledge to help
  •   Concise and comprehensive, very loving, very good
  •   Mr. Zhang Guogang, I have been deeply admire all academic, this book is very thin, many problems are not discussed, but is really explain profound theories in simple language, but infiltrated many academic new, is not a general sense of the introductory books, I have strongly recommended!
 

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