Burial history

Date of publication:2011-8   Press: Social Science Document Press   Author:Zhang Jiefu   Pages´╝Ü172  
Preface

China is an ancient country with a long cultural history, built from the legend of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns to the people's Republic of China, the people living in this land has never stopped exploring, the steps of creation. Changsha unearthed in Mawangdui light smoke if, as thin as cicada's wings in yarn demonstrated a the ancients have reached in silk weaving, making height; Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes nearly five hundred caves in the more than 2000 colorful statue statue and a large number of murals painted and showing the ancients made in sculpture and painting achievements; there are bronze, pottery, garden building, the palace building, as well as poetry, calligraphy, tea ceremony, Chinese and other material and non-material cultural heritage, they have to show the world the five thousand years of Chinese cultural brilliant, show the charm and gorgeous China this ancient country. This is a precious heritage, we should cherish every one of all the children of the Yellow Emperor. History will not be forever favor any one nation or a country, when the world entered the modern time, once one thousand years ranked the world development peak of ancient China, from the top drop. In 1840, the Opium War broke the Qing Empire "China country" dream, then Chinese became the powers at the mercy of lamb. Signed an unequal treaty, not only make the China massive outflow of silver, more make China territory gradually invaded by foreign powers, the Treasury deficit, The people are destitute. The ancient oriental had brilliant, also disappear in smoke with the bombardment of the Western powers gunboats, China step by step into the semi colony. Unwilling to yield the Chinese people also began to save the country and the people, the rich country struggle road. From the Westernization Movement to reform, from the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom to Xin Hai revolution, from the May 4th Movement to the new democratic revolution led by the Communist Party of China, Chinese people fail, finally realized that "only socialism can save China, only socialism can develop China" this truth. The leadership of the Communist Party of China China people remove the obstacles, the establishment of a new China, suffered from the humiliation and ravaged Chinese people stand up. The old Chinese radiate new vigor and vitality, get rid of the invaded and bullied history, stand erect in the National Forest of the world. Every Chinese people should understand the history of civilization of the Chinese nation for thousands of years, should also be more than one hundred years since the Opium War of national humiliation in mind. When we step into the tide of globalization and information technology revolution in twenty-first Century, rapid development, regional exchanges between the barrier was broken by the new communication tools such as the Internet, the world's diversity presented to the world. Any one of the world's regional inevitably exist intersection collision with more than two kinds of culture, but it is undeniable that, in recent years, along with the tide of the market economy, the western culture to blow on the face, some people only western fashion, the nation's traditional aside. A large number of young people even more than the westerners are also keen to Christmas, Valentine's day and foreign fast food, the major festivals of all ethnic groups in China as well as the basic knowledge of history China ignorant, this is the Chinese nation to realize the great renaissance of suffering. Chinese is Chinese, the reason why the Chinese people thousands of years without separation, the foundation is a legend of Chinese civilization 5000 pulse. If the discarded for thousands of years to inherit culture, and foreign culture freely disseminated, it is difficult to imagine 1300000000 Chinese where to look for the national centripetal force and cohesion. In the great cause of socialist modernization, to realize national rejuvenation, vigorously carry forward the excellent national culture and national spirit, carry forward the Chinese culture tradition of patriotism and national sense of pride, in China characteristics in the course of socialist constructionConstruction has the China, unique culture and value system, Everbright excellent traditional culture of the Chinese nation is a long term career. At present, China has entered a new historical period of profound reform of economic system, profound changes of social structure, a profound adjustment of the pattern of interests, profound changes in thinking. Facing the new historical task and new challenges from all sides, the whole Party and people need to learn and grasp the socialist core value system, to form the whole society common ideals and beliefs, ideological and moral foundation lay the whole Party and the people struggle in unity, the formation of the whole nation to make progress in spiritual strength, this is we are building a socialist harmonious society ideological guarantee. Chinese Academy of social sciences as a national social science research institutions, has the responsibility to contribute. We based on the compilation and publication of "history of Chinese civilization" and "100 years of history" China on expert organization institute, both inside and outside the field, the recent fusion, editing and publishing large historical knowledge series -- "Chinese history", its goal lies in for the broad masses of the people especially the youth with a complete, accurate description of China history and traditional culture popularization class series, so that life in the information age people especially young people can understand their own ancestral history, in the four corners of the world cultural exchanges by friends to know, good subjects covered, cultural exchanges with other countries in the world in Chinese increasingly deep, to maintain quality and characteristics of our unremitting self-improvement, social commitment, will the Chinese nation spirit forever carry forward. "Chinese history" series first meter 200, each 10 words, mainly from the political, economic, cultural, military, philosophy, art, science and technology, food, clothing, transportation, construction and other aspects of the historical development of Chinese civilization and evolution for thousands of years from ancient times to the present. The history of five thousand years of Chinese culture is not only to show the brilliant, shows the wisdom of our ancestors and creative spirit, but also show the unyielding and struggling spirit China people. We sincerely hope that this set of universal knowledge of history books on the broad masses of the people to further understand the excellent cultural tradition of the Chinese nation, enhancing national self-esteem and pride to play its due role, encouraged by the broad masses of the people especially the new generation of workers and builders Zai Jian set Chinese characteristic socialist road continuously striding forward, for our motherland better future contribute to greater strength. In 2011 April @##@ Chen Kuiyuan The copyright page: tri colored glazed pottery is a hanging glazed pottery figures or pottery, with three colors, is specialized for the grave goods. The level of its production process is very high, the carcass is white clay by kneading and molding materials, biscuit, then glazing of glaze firing. This is compounded with lead and quartz. Such as the incorporation amount of copper oxide, can burn into green; mixed oxide, burning brown. In the same vessels, several glaze and used alternately, can burn into hanging yellow, green glazed pottery, white or yellow, green, blue Its brightness dazzles the eyes.. With this exquisite pottery as grave goods, mainly popular in Zhou Wu (Wu Zetian) and after the Kaiyuan flourishing age. Varieties include pottery and artifacts into two categories, figurines and pottery figurines and two animal figurines. According to archaeological excavations, pottery figurines figurines, figurines warrior king, civilian figurines, figurines, figurines, and Lady Hu figurines, figurines, figurines, figurines of acrobatics; animal figurines to Ma figurines, figurines are camels, there are other tiger, lion figurines, figurines figurines, figurines, donkey ox, sheep pig figurines the dog figurines, figurines, figurines, figurines, chicken and duck. Objects of type is more, all the utensils used for life, almost all. As big as a house, car, warehouse, toilet, cabinet, small bottles, bottles, cans, pots, bowls, plates, cups, incense, inkstone etc.. Tri colored glazed pottery making art skill, shape lifelike. Pottery figurines different identity, different expression: King figurines headband, dressed in armor, hand akimbo, knuckles raised, feet on a drum head grinning demon warrior; muscular, headband, dressed in armor, wide open eyes, as the potential confront each other with daggers; those civil face end is, referring to official scholars, refined and cultured; female figurines updo wide sleeves, stand gracefully erect, and Shu elegant, crony wind; Hu Yong nose, with the peaked cap, or hold a musical instrument, or pull a camel horse. The most spectacular is dance, marching groups such as figurines, such as in 1959 in Xi'an, a Tang Dynasty tomb excavations unearthed village, camel carrying musicians particularly attract sb.'s attention. The figurines group, in a majestic camel back on a platform, there are 8 people in the dance team platform: in front of the 2 musicians, a Peng Sheng, 1 hold the flute, as blowing like; on the right side of the 2 musicians, 1 holding the pipa, 1 hold the harp, as a play shape; 2 Le figurines on the left, 1 supporting flute, 1 executive decision, make the shape; behind the 1 musicians holding panpipes, as blowing like. In the middle of the 7 musicians and 1 female dance figurines, right hand lift, left arm back, as the song and dance. The dance team, facial expression vivid. Animal figurines to horses and camels as well. Ma figurines blood uniform, vigorous strong; robust calm camel figurines, God will foot. In 1957, fresh from Xi'an to tomb unearthed 4 horses figurines: 2 horse hoof as orange yellow, white, with white striped neck; horsehair is light yellow, it cut a flower; horse saddle and bridle reins decorated with taste, saddle wrapped in a blue blanket, chest and shares the winding belt, there is yellow flowers eight do chest belt, and both ends have Apricot Leaf Pendant 3; have a full set of bridle decorated horse's head, mouth both sides with angular darts, mouth in the mouth, nose, hanging on the side of Apricot Leaf pendant. In addition, 2 white horses, was all white mane, cut 3 flower pattern, saddle and bridle reins decorated very beautiful; 4 horses figurines are seen to the left, vivid patterns of abnormal.
Summary

The funeral, saying simply is mourning for the dead, bury the dead. The earliest human, life and ordinary animal is not much difference, action without consciousness after death, abandoned corpse wilderness, let the beasts pecking. Can say, that man is no funeral. Funeral this custom is produced with the concept of the human soul, and gradually developed.
book using a lot of facts. The funeral culture in the rise and fall of the dynasties, and introduces the ideas of funeral each nation, each faction and its form of expression, as well as the funeral culture, funeral etiquette in different forms and manifestations, characteristics and influence in the history of the different. Believe that read this book, you will be on China's funeral culture have a clear and comprehensive understanding of.
Author brief introduction

Zhang Jiefu, born in 1938, Jiangsu Peixian people, Chinese History Research Institute of the Academy of Social Sciences researcher. In 1963 graduated from the History Department of Peking University, former director of China History Research Institute of the Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for the history of Qing Dynasty, the Ming and Qing Dynasties, "Qing" editor in chief. Study and research is mainly engaged in the history of the Qing Dynasty, burial history, has published "history of China funeral", in the 10 volumes of the "Qing history", 20 volumes this "draft" Qing Dynasty biography writing, and served as one of the "draft" of the Qing Dynasty character editor.
Catalogue of books

The
a primitive society's funeral
1 clan public cemetery
2 matriarchal clan society in and two buried
3 paternal clan society burial custom of the change of
two slave society funeral
1 superstition prevailing
2 Shang Dynasty tombs and coffin
3 worldwide objective the bronze funerary objects
4 human sacrifice and human sacrifice
5 turn vulgar as the gift of the Western Zhou Dynasty funeral
three Confucian ideas of funeral
1 Confucius "filial piety" and "benevolence"
2 Mencius burial ideas
3 gou Zi "in the section" thought "br / >...... Changes of

four elaborate Confucian funeral service system
five five
six and
seven dim wind and thin burial of popular
eight burial custom of the Tang Dynasty funeral again.
nine yuan of funeral
ten Ming and Qing Dynasty burial system eleven cremation minority bumpy course
twelve the burial custom
thirteen funeral and burial of the fight against
fourteen geomantic superstition and the feng shui of the critical
bibliography
Chapter excerpt

"History" is one of the Chinese funeral history, social customs series.
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