Unexpectedly, the Mosuo give yourself so great impact and enlightenment. Yu Fanhua grow rich Hongkong, twenty-six years old when the university teacher, Feng good salary job and run half of the earth, even in the long term was regarded as "backward", "foolish", "no culture" Mosuo mountain, only to find the hearts of the the Peach Garden. In 1999 August, I from Kunming, Lijiang, Ninglang, a road in the Mosuo family, study hard Mosuo language, in the mountain before four days, reached the Mosuo villages permanent Ningxiang Ninglang County Lijiang area of Yunnan province. When I was a single photo and into Atta's house, Au hospitality of remaining, also be filled with righteous indignation about how the Naxi Mosuo "annex", how to disappear in the fifty-six nation list. On 1990 the provincial people's Congress finally approved the "Mosuo" title, Au Rant: "we used to be a dog, a pig, it's people!" apparently, the Mosuo people there are many words want to say, but in the mainstream of society, vulnerable groups have been lacking space. At that time, I have had to find their position in the Mosuo people, more to listen to the voice of Mosuo people subject. Really glad to without electricity or running water (TAP) of the village as a starting point, let me deeply understand the power of fire, fire, even thought the Mosuo described as "five social". Mosuo life with fire as the center, the Mosuo people worship the fire, will be proud to say: "we cannot do without fire, no fire without me." To live in the home tomorrow evening, I went into the next to the cloth falling home. The outside is dark, no electric calm silence, the mother house is bright, full of the life force of the warm home. Cloth falling home two AMI and their two 70 year old grandmother, see the guests from afar, immediately in the fire boiled sweet end melon seeds, and then very frankly tell their stories. The first time I realized that the "maternal home", "as", "are you happy, so I happy" meaning. The old grandmother (76 years old) young partner died, no children, life and her sister and nephew, grandchildren live; sister (70 years old) has two daughters, five grandchildren. Five Sun Sunjie for study, Amy that children go out free development is good, do not worry about the children, as long as the three daughters have a willing to come back when they do; if three daughters all adhere to the outside, as long as there is a son home marriage; even in the most extreme case, five children are not willing to go home, also from the matriarchal clan in adoptive daughter alone and walking marriage. That night, I see the Mosuo culture highly flexible strain capacity. But, the most let me shock, is the relationship between mothers and children, not the mainstream of society as the exclusive and private property as unalterable principlesOutside, but shared the "we are one". On a night, I still not clear, which is "to" what's "mother", two microphones, not to care about, also did not distinguish "you and me" are the heart.
This book introduces the Mosuo people in Ninglang County Yongning Township in Lijiang area of Yunnan province. Mosuo people living with her grandmother, mother, male not marriage, women do not marry, have a "walking marriage" life. Know who the father is, but the father's role is not to take care of their children, but to take care of his nephew uncle identity of female. This book made some Mosuo people I want to say that it is difficult to use the text words, some set people thinking views, such as "shy," culture "," the end of the male and female "mother statue is not derogatory female", "male female not light" etc.. Especially "the shy culture", to make some difficult to explain the phenomenon of click into place the past. Zhou Huashan bold and points out the limitations and the crisis of Mosuo culture, that he is responsible for the Mosuo ethnic attitudes was analyzed based on the.
Zhou Huashan, Ph. D., assistant professor in the Department of the University of Hong Kong, since 1998, in Chinese gender research. The main works are: "Zhou Runfa phenomenon", "consumer culture: images, culture and music", "TV is dead", "if God is a girl", "comrade", "theory of Hongkong gay story", "Beijing story", "comrade," comrade "post colonial reading don't", "gender over the Chinese" etc..
Preface I Mosuo days Chapter maternal thinking women mother, little mother mother house fire female the male end, ultimately good women and bad women choose "when the family" "the head of the woman" the second chapter maternal thinking men. "Mother culture misreading of Anemarrhena asphodeloides not father", the father and son were co husband wife, brother child marriage puzzle three sisters and three father know father, recognize the father but not dear father why get married? The third chapter family residence with maternal blood as the core is not equal to the uncle's home, family responsibility family feeling than husband and wife love marriage is not equal to live, the separation is not equal to "from" fourth chapter shy and incest taboo inexplicably shy to prevent disorderly Lun young delicate mentality fifth chapter two non exclusive concepts and customs leapfrog "monogamy" and "faithfulness" don't cheat, not exclusive, not jealous as long as mutual as the "virgin", "lose", "widow" absurd "single mother" and "illegitimate child" no sexual repression and denial will not force you to take the marriage broke up not marriage is not marriage, sexual liberation hurt married, with inter ethnic marriage sixth chapter deliberately misrepresent "Assia marriage," the old man doesn't know "Assia" means "Assia" and marriage have no relevance "husband and wife" not "monogamy" chapter seventh mysterious and frightening Gu o a "most there is no gu Gu poison irreconcilable with Gu house sound eighth chapter" Yang'Erche'Namu phenomenon "in the ninth chapter from a village to see. Tourism development after the Mosuo house become business units to fluctuate in line with market conditions tourists are walking marriage to the tenth chapter finished impact -- Mosuo men shake and struggle is the eleventh chapter house maintenance change man's day after ninety time Mosuo men in modern life Mosuo women enjoy sexual autonomy unwilling to adapt to modern life today do not make decisions headed the twelfth chapter the research and feminist is not the men and women of the eight principles of research postscript Mosuo sound (a) / Lamu Gatusa Mosuo sound (two) / O column people to you only a Mosuo sound (three) / no sa a color if the meeting Mosuo sound (four) / Ruhen Ronbze Li
Illustration: as the "virgin", "lose", "widow" absurd Mosuo language has no virgin, chastity, hymen, a widow, the concept of. The woman is not the property of men, the body of a woman and the so-called chastity, is not dependent property of the man symbol, not a double standard to construct "a man can love everywhere, women starvation small big things Shijie" patriarchal Confucian orthodoxy. The Mosuo culture, women's boyfriend, husband, father. Uncle and brother, had no right to pre her feelings. The woman feelings, property and for men no weak consciousness and sense of dependence. I heard the most wonderful speech about "virgin" in the Mosuo, from men. Xu Mida history (66 years old) said: "the most important is to choose a partner character, whether good, hard work, for the sake of his family, the most afraid of is selfish and egoistic casually walking marriage. As for the Is it right? Virgin, what?" Ana Wolana (61 years old) more strongly against "this view:" virgin "Mosuo this idea of not having a virgin, you explanations I also not too understand, people should not look at it this way, we should respect women, do not respect women equals disrespect to their mother." Dan Cao Jie (41) have a very stable, loving friends, three children were living in friend home, the son is her former boyfriend and the. When asked about the ever "mind" partner is not "virgin", he said: "why the mind? Mind what? If a man could find a virgin, that is not a virgin who want? This is not good! Both sides have the experience, really enjoy. The woman to you and walk, she worked with who together, is her own business." Black tiles fell doctor Atta (52 years old) thirty years ago, the village from the door to the house of Atta, for thirty years and love love as ever, but he actually said: "if one day I found that children are not born, but his wife and other men, I would not care about, after all the family harmony for decades, the child will still thrive, I regarded him as a son. We don't like the Han jealous or care about the virgin. The most important is the home of harmony. Like my decades of the influence of the Chinese culture, the Communist Party keep faithful and true, but my heart is still full of Mosuo concept, some woman or wife is not good to me, I will certainly return to mother home seven diffuse home. This is our sense of security." The feelings of both separation and non possession, the value of a woman is not in the marriage or not, there is no "divorced woman" and "widow" concept. Najib a microphone (38 years old) 10 years ago and a man walking marriage, six years, two female students. The man to Ninglang work, feelings turned pale, he married in the town and Han women, died last year. Najib a microphone is now the family, hard work, but the mood is happy, on the face always with a peaceful and happy smile. That day I and the village with a Han woman about Najib a microphone, the Han women almost instinctively said: "Oh, who was abandoned by her husband's widow!" I spent half a day, remembered with her husband separated women in Han society, it will be labeled "divorced woman", "the widow", "feeling miserable" and other negative label, even if the body and mind relaxed Nagy a microphone can not escape the Gentiles imposed cap. "Single mother" and "illegitimate child" in the mainstream of society, "the unmarried mother" and "illegitimate child" is women's nightmare, the patriarchal assets logic (i.e. men to have children and property through marriage) subversion and challenge, it is patriarchal society as "promiscuous" down, "immoral", "bad woman". Women are thought to belong to the patriarchal family, chastity represents the value of women. Whenever the gender sexual contact was regarded as a female suffer, because "lose" the most valuable "chastity", for possession and protection of patriarchal family, the cost is lost women's independence, sexually more must maintain morality. Mosuo women life with his mother and her child to live, the child does not belong to the father or paternal family, therefore, does not exist "illegitimate child" or "unmarried mother". The maternal home system now between male and female sexual contact completely leave (male) possession and (female) at the expense of gain and loss logic, women pregnant maternal home always benefit, the man does not earn nor loss. This is entirely voluntary sharing, not the outcome of competition, the success or failure of the possession and exclusion. Mosuo men about feelings, attitude is always calm and frank to say, did not show off their virginity, also does not rely on each other to affirm "masculinity", and even her faithless, men also take things calmly. No sexual repression and denial of the traditional Mosuo life close to nature landscape vegetation, freely flowing style of writing, and thinking, not Jewish, Christian in sex guilt or suppress, don't think that sex can only proceed to birth, no Han, there are three kinds of feudal dogma, the sex basically is come very naturally reconcile oneself to one's situation. Village has a ma (now dead) is a classic example of. A Ma's mother gave birth to nine sons, the whole worries bother deep fear leave no successor, finally had a Armagh this only daughter, family tread. A fifteen year old began walking marriage Armagh, mother said to her: "my daughter, make the lover is shameful, not in a sneaky way, don't be scared, be generous calm." But the other 10 days, the man asked to marry a Ma, very disappointed, frankly impossible, mother will put him out, because she's nine brothers after go through untold hardships to the female. A Ma met with many lovers walking marriage, and three of them gave birth to ten children, that his family have qualified successors. Mosuo unique house system, from a woman in the patriarchal system of sex and pregnant moral and psychological anxiety. His mother had been a daughter with a different man communication support. The two time in Iraq, a daughter asked Armagh car Ma (29 years old) has three fathers will be shy. A car and she said: "of course not. Like different people is very normal thing, every child born after wine, is completely be right and proper. What was his home from my mother a person to continue the family line, so at the age of fifteen he encouraged her marriage." The author found that, although the ceremony held in the thirteen age, the vast majority of Mosuo people after the age of sixteen began to take the marriage. LatticeDong Ji is thirteen years old in seventh grade, my age Yi students get married (Doll dear), made him very surprised, thought that the mind of a thirteen year old how to get married? As many writers that Mosuo marriage rite, one thinks of the Mosuo fourteen. Started some five years old, is not accurate. With the popularization of Chinese education, began walking marriage now most Mosuo about ten or twenty years old. In the traditional Mosuo, hot springs can best express this not to body and sex as a naturalistic view of sin. Until the late seventy's, a piece of hot spring is still open and one bath. According to the number of old people, people of all ages and both sexes are used as naked as when one was born to enjoy hot spring bath, both health care and enjoy wine mellow wonderful realm, in the steaming environment and solo, antiphonal singing, chat, flirt and tease, no cover and bondage, body and soul are released, is the most natural emotional expression. Asked about the men and women naked bath will shy, Aas Song Aa (102 years old) said: "the body is the same, but the size and the shape features, you have, I have, why shy?" Abu 2 (81) also said: "the people born as naked as when one was born, this is true. Naked is not equal to the licentious. Mosuo spring since ancient times men and women with the bath, rape or assault happened never. No sex would make lewd behavior? If men and women flirt met together to leave, it must be I wish you love. This is the joy of life, as a shy, which is why?" After the cultural revolution, spring began to be regarded as promiscuous in 1982 men and women at the pool, there is no wall isolation, later wall built up to two feet, but stood still stick out a mile, individual men and women across the wall or through the hole and heterosexual men and women with the bath pool circulation. In eighty time, partition to more than one meter, but both men and women can still be used to take the clothes hanging on the wall and see each other's body. To the early ninety's the rise of tourism, foreign tourists exaggerated responses to the opposite sex now local residents embarrassed uneasy, finally put the bath built men and women completely separated sealed "civilization". Now even the Mosuo young people also internalized the mainstream of separating men and women thinking, do not accept the past anisotropic one bath custom, even the past tradition as "promiscuous debauchery". But the old man is generally more "open" and "straightforward". A preliminary Weng ancient (64 years old) detailed hot men and women flirt: "in the past, interesting, not like now so taboo and conservative. Every year only to the hot spring one or two, a bubble all day, like who will naturally antiphonal singing, accosted, ridicule, night beside the lawn put up spring fire, sang jumping Mosuo dance, night chat. Can you see the fate, if agree in opinion, two people to go away quietly." A preliminary Weng ancient refers to previous sexuality combined with labor situation, he said: "before even labor are especially fun, whether making the tares, cattle, picking matsutake, anyway, all is the young people, but also in the outdoor, slowly chat, meet every day, rijiushengqing, unlike in the fireplace like stiff. This is from the beginning of labor in life. As for labor before marriage, not necessarily, there are three days of fate can take marriage; if the disposition shy, or wrong, for two or three years. In short, labor is very fun, the songs boasting, have a look and chat, together with several partners soon one day. Now seems to be very painful, my daughter went Ninglang work units, each home is called hard, stress, worry about layoffs, the personnel relationship is complex, work is not happy." Never force you to this the author visited three hundred Mosuo adults (18 years old) "walking marriage" situation, found that the current single accounted for 41%, married or married 59%; have some married 72%, never married or married 28%; forty years old is still never married or married 14%, reason mainly including Lama, mutilation, looks have defects, temperament violent extreme, family considered raising method. Not interested in the opposite sex, etc.. In addition to the Dalai Lama, the categories of the population if the Han society, will be parents urge marriage. Mosuo matriarchal system this man had no family pressure, a woman as long as the sisters gave birth to her daughter, the sleeves swaying with every soft breeze is free and happy. Therefore, the 14% lifelong single Mosuo population, several times higher than the Han nationality, is not willing to marry people do not have to bear the heavy pressure of non love and marriage love the pain. Each Mosuo villages have a relationship never with the opposite sex of the Mosuo people, they both speak with that elders and their families will not give any pressure. For example, Zhu Di Cun tile receiver students concentrated A Mu (35 years old) never married, her explanation is "sickly". The "interpretation" is true or not is not important, important is she really did not have any pressure, her young sister has come in two women and one man, lived in the mother house. A Mu's big brother is solid only a (46 years old) said: "in the Mosuo culture tradition, is not very common, no pressure, no matter is not met to make their own emotional person, or what is the reason, are regarded as normal. If anyone to give her any pressure, I will stop to big brother and Dayong identity, because this is immoral." Ba Qi Cun Yong Mi Islands (66 years old) more pierce to the heart of the matter said: "one divides into two kinds, if because of their extreme nature, people will look down upon; if because of bad reputation or house looks physical defects, more people will cherish, never discriminated against, but for family welcome, because a permanent home in the labor force." Kiri Rikako Wo Ke home three brothers Wo Ke partial MA (60 years old), wo Ke Zha Xi (58 years old) and brother (died 29 years old) were never married. Wo Ke Zha Xi frankly: "we are a family of eighteen people live now, a niece will car note MA (46 years) as the next generation of children, many, not their problem. Marriage is a personal, family don't, my brother never interested to the woman, my body is sick, not easy walking marriage, anyway with the brothers and sisters have a lifetime. Mother had to arrange my brother got married, but my brother did not agree, blow, he was twenty-nine years old died. There have been people ask me, never married, do not feel pity? I feel very strange, you people life and wife together, has not realized the brothers and sisters for a lifetime of unconditional love care, do not feel pity?" Breaking up is not hurt feelings Mosuo on advocating independent personality, men do not think they have girlfriends, women don't think they belong to the manTake care of each other, not locked, run together with self. Even if the partner affectionate lingering, rely on only their matrilineal family rather than the "wife" and "husband"; therefore, love to talk, no need to retain, but not before. The feelings of the high purity, is generally not a grudging because of the face, economic or other practical considerations. The characteristics of this system is to meet, and take the initiative to "walk" in the past, can together, not like the marriage; like, even bad mood, the two sides dispute or want to be alone, still want to live together with. No wonder many Mosuo people proudly points out some emotional concentration and sincere, than married couples. But, love is only regarded as a small part of the wonderful life, the maternal home is in the rear of the true feelings, not "romantic myth", do not think that life must find one that meets your feelings, thoughts and life, all need to love. Love will not overload, no wonder the Mosuo people agreed that never happened to kill or to Dutch act. Love is not the center of life, also not be regarded as negative. The meaning of life and happiness is more calm, easy to accept. Ranku Aas said: "the spring comes, flowers bloom, if not your lover, what significance sad pity? Rather than looking for another. Mother's arranged marriage to love Dutch act, not free. Amy knew me before breaking up with a partner, will that break up very pity ah, hurry to find a better than him, let him know your loss, you want to help?" Twenty year old Yang Zhihua out this smart and wisdom. She grew up in Yongning Ba Qi Cun, seventeen years old to Kunming Nationalities Village, is the author's first Mosuo young man. I spoke with Yang Zhihua, just know she just three days ago and the first boyfriend, so I appreciate is her not impatient is not floating relieved calm, apparently has been completely resolved by boyfriend "abandon" sorrow: "he's really a bit too much, I hide secretly and my cousin is good, this kind of man, not worth mentioning, I will know how to choose a partner after." Marriage is not the liberation of western modern industrial society to overthrow the past feudal marriage, with the rise of the middle class and the free market economy, free love became the dominant consciousness, emotion model generally comply with the "single program in love, marriage and then can have sex". China since the early twentieth Century, with the blind marriage dumb married information, the program also gradually to young people scramble for. Mosuo culture there is no single emotion mode, whether from the feelings of the beginning, or from sex, as long as the two sides I wish you love to do, others have no right to interfere. When I asked elder aspen (102) how to evaluate "emotional or sexual start", her answer was set people thinking: "there is time should see cattle pigs, they both joy and exhilaration, why to want to interfere in other people? Their feeling unpleasant talent best nosy." The natural feelings of the two please others not the peck tradition, are under the enormous impact of lifetime value monogamy. Part of Mosuo young Cenozoic internalization of modern Chinese thought, even by the standards of modern industrial society to construct the Mosuo subject, but their hearts "backward" Mosuo, contains rich treasure. For example, in the tourist spots. 鲁得马 (27) said: "the past feelings are stable, the so-called three years send speechless messages, three years, three years of exchange be concerned with love and romance, relationships can occur, not like the outside world to like casually." I can say with certainty, traditional Mosuo absolutely no have to associate nine years relations view. The limited time program and standard feelings never. Node 鲁得马 emphasizes traditional Mosuo feeling is "stable" and "one on one", although the mainstream social moral standards, seemingly glorify traditional Mosuo, actually is the passion distorted traditional Mosuo's most precious and very enlightening significance, completely lost its main sound. As for the traditional Mosuo tradition refers to the "sexual liberation", was untrue. Six, seventy in the western society "sexual liberation", not only on the individualism, emphasizing sexual pleasure and orgasm, it not only has charm and experience into a social pressure, it is to be in the right and self-confident men, men can move. The Mosuo house standard. The equality of the sexes, unpretentious relaxed, is completely different.
Come one year, have been my help of the Mosuo people is numerous. Risk. Several of them, must still be grateful. Yang Duzhi and Yang Xianhe were the first to Mosuo people I know (couple). Yang Xianhe is the kind of mother love, let you have an unspeakable comfortable and moved. Yang only a life for the state and keep faithful and true, they made me start from Kunming, has experience of Mosuo people selfless passion of love, not only for the villagers, even I also deeply touched by the foreign guests. And Zhong Hua the teacher let me realize the elder scholars carry on the selfless help, to conduct the study very smooth. Mosuo research Weng Naiqun teacher gave me great inspiration, the "female source male stream" and "the public domain family" is an important basis for my entire Mosuo research. Weng teacher academic no personal assets exclusive and exclusive, each about Mosuo culture and he, has also become a great heart, wisdom, knowledge and enjoyment. Atta A U and I first met, heard that I was self funded research, call I live down, want to come, to go out, make me the "stranger" not for the Mosuo moved. As silently and softly the Amy that does not seek fame low-key, not for praise, let me understand women's honor, is definitely not a feminist or matriarchy, but based on selfless care. Ana Wolana is the kind of self relieved as a pleasurable occupation, and was educated fully respect others independent space, make me at his home at ease, and the biggest help in time of need. Tang Bin let me see the city entered the Mosuo by purification of the calm lake, a variety of human choroid bamboo I deeply understand the Luoshui village. Jiang Chun give up a great deal of playing mahjong, fishing, dumplings, time to drink and shop, carefully read the book, so the book has left the "children's Literature". Liu Yongqing and Cai Kui for valuable comments on the book. Need to study the small and deep understanding of my years, always use the most vivid examples, have all kinds of connections with representation of Mosuo culture. Years beginning with Cao Jianping on the product gives a lot of very insightful criticism. Lattice Dong Ji more completely scholar level, subtle trance interpretation frictionShuttle culture, often for hours every phrase a gem to logic and philosophy, explain profound theories in simple language the Mosuo culture. The standard dragon to life language the most frank, let me see the complicated multi Mosuo culture. The intimacy and the Mosuo people, let me see the combination of traditional Mosuo and modern civilization, but also deeply understand the Mosuo culture maintained up to the present, the key is not the geographical isolation, but their own cultural advantages and reasonable internal elements, and like a water village become rich, modern and time and I still alive, traditional Mosuo beauty.
"Without father and husband?" Editors: Mosuo people living in the border Chinese Sichuan Yunnan the Lugu Lake, population of more than 5, Mosuo matriarchal family is known as the "living fossil of early human society", "the world's only maternal kingdom", the Mosuo people and founded the matriarchal society since ancient times, women, dominate the life, male, female do not marry do not get married, "strange" Assia "take the marriage system and" Uncle Zhang etiquette master money "big maternal family pattern.
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