The first chapter Sui and Tang state sacrifice shrines in color since the mid western Han Dynasty, the state sacrifice has experienced the process of Confucian ritual, then dynastic state sacrifice is the basic operation in accordance with the principle of Confucian. But between the Han and Tang Dynasties, dramatic social changes, especially in the southern and Northern Dynasties period, the aristocratic family in Imperial challenge, metaphysics prospered, Buddhism and Taoism, popular, and the legacy of the tribe to the state system is covered in comparison to the original color, all this makes Confucianism Jahwa sacrificial system impact. Along with the establishment of the Sui and Tang Dynasties of the Empire, the state sacrificial system rebuild. After this period of tortuous history of the development, it has changed? In particular, the Confucian theory on the basis of national sacrifices and whether there are no people? Max Webb (Max Weber) said: "Chinese official state ceremonies, as elsewhere, only serving the public interests; and worship is to clan interests. The two have nothing to do with the interests of the individual. Natural genius was increasingly impersonalized, sacrifice to them is simplified as the official ceremony, and the ceremonies gradually emptying the feelings of all elements, and finally became a purely social customs. This is educated intellectuals work done, they completely ignore the mass of typical religious needs." Webb this theory actually represents the educational circles for a long time for a typical tendency state sacrifice Chinese ancient understanding, the State Sacrificial completely as pure official ceremony is divorced from individual religious beliefs. For example, Mai Dawei think, for the non official members of the religious life, the establishment of associated with the bureaucratic state worship gods of no great significance in cosmology, based on. Gan Huaizhen also said: "in order to outskirts sacrifice and the emperor temple as the representative of the Confucian ritual system (can be coupled with Confucian Temple) but it doesn't matter" and people, "Confucianism crisis is the relationship between the emperor worship to this loss led by sacrificial system and grassroots people, namely people believe, shrines and Confucianism sacrifice in place on the temple independent." We think, these views ignore the social changes between the Han and Tang Dynasties major impact on national sacrifices have to some extent. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, a series of new national sacrifices prompted us to rethink its Confucian degree, and their relations with the people of faith. In fact, some of the basic features of folk belief in ancient China, such as idol worship and nature gods personified, after the Han Dynasty Confucian rites of baptism, to a considerable extent, still exist in the state sacrificial system, book called "national sacrifices God Temple color". In this chapter, we will from four aspects to this specific analysis, thereby experience State worship Confucianism limit. The first day the God of nature personified Gan Huai really think: "the Confucian national sacrifice system since the Western Han Dynasty later period, mainly rely on Confucian ceremony after the 'cosmology of the gods' way of understanding. Perhaps we can be in the heavens of Confucianism, such as the day, date, month, stars, called with the nature of God, or supernatural nature of God, which is different from the prevailing Buddhism and Taoism in the personality of the concept of god. The God of Confucianism is the image of nature, does not have the man, so also does not have the 'historic', not myths and legends. Everything in the universe endowment gas, the gas gathering and is the best?. The emperor worship purpose, does not lie in the blessing or removing dirty, but in promoting the harmonious operation between heaven and earth gas." The paper has certain truth, but not completely. In fact, "Datang Kaiyuan Li" volume three "order" under the list of "special cases of prayer" section, mainly for the rain fine is given priority to, its goal is to go to the disaster to pray. As for the nature of God's personality, though always is one of the important characteristics of Chinese folk belief, but in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, has become an important feature, national sacrifices but, this feature has been officially recognized and advocated national.
Lei Wen, born in 1972, Shaanxi Xunyang people. In 2002 graduated from the History Department of Peking University, Ph.D., is the Chinese History Research Institute of the Academy of Social Sciences researcher. The main research field of political system, the Sui and Tang Dynasties etiquette and religious history, Dunhuang Turpan study, published more than 20 papers. For the 2007-2008 annual Harvard Yenching Institute visiting scholar.
National sacrifices to heaven and earth, reflects the concept of ghosts of an era, also reflects the different location of the imperial power in different periods of the day, people, is an important part of the belief system in each period. Sui and Tang state sacrifice this topic has many scholars have discussed and studied from different aspects, but the main achievement is still concentrated in the emperor's rural temple worship activities, this book in the Sui and Tang Dynasties State worship and religion and society this topic has carried on the new exploration. Author concluded: "in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, state sacrifice is not equal to the emperor worship, state sacrifice is not limited by Confucian theory, state sacrifice is not only the official ceremony has nothing to do with the people of faith." These few words, reflects the characteristics of the times the national sacrifices, it is also the essence of this book lies. "The state sacrifice is not equal to the emperor worship". The book points out, "the Tang Dynasty, not only the religious ritual activities, has become the national affairs, even various kinds of religious activities, including local government held rain, also is a kind of public behavior." This is a close relationship between the Tang Dynasty and the change of the political system. The state is no longer the emperor's private property, the emperor was only the highest government leaders. "Country", "royal court" and "the emperor" concept, from the Tang Dynasty began to have strict distinction, "national", "royal court" is no longer the "emperor" of the concept of expansion and extension. "National sacrifices are not limited by the Confucian theory". The Tang Dynasty to learnVarious kinds of culture to fully inclusive and equitable, choose and follow what is good policy. This is down from the early years of the Tang Dynasty. For all the theory and system of Confucian classics, in the Tang Dynasty has the maximum absorption and utilization.
Sequence of a sequence of two introduction section research object and the core concept in section second, the basic structure of the Sui and Tang Dynasties state sacrifice third section on history section of the fourth book the general idea of section fifth material and method first chapter Sui and Tang state sacrifice shrines color section natural God personified a Yue Du as the representative of the mountains and the God two wind the three section second division Rainmaker earth Shidian etiquette and Confucian Temple worship an idol worship and the world through sacrifice two Shidian outside the Confucian Temple third day for the first emperor worship a Confucian classics sacrifice principle and the codification of the Sui and Tang Dynasties and two national ritual Codex standard three Tianbao four new record "and" Datang outskirts sacrifice the religious live fourth Festival spread Changan Fang in the royal temple of Taoism, Buddhism and the second chapter state sacrifice first emperor image and religious sacrifice a sacrifice of two images with Taoism and the local bed Miao three first emperor image and the temple more than four on the second day Yue Du worship, Taoism and folk beliefs of convergence of a Tang before Yue Du sacrifice and the two Tang Gao Pope Fengshan ritual Taoist elements in the three Yue du Dragon cast and Wu Chou revolution propaganda four mountains Zhenjun temple in Tang Dynasty and the state sacrifice five state worship, Taoism and folk worship of the third chapter "cults" and "temples" between the first day the local cults of stratification and operation of local cults in Tang Dynasty layered two CI three Town God God four arrived Ye Temple practices form the second festival in Tang and Song Dynasties local cults policy changes before Tang State worship of Confucianism and "Yinsi" decision two Tang Dynasty national control of local cults style change three the new gods system and the establishment of "ceremony", "temples" implementation of the concept of section third in the late Tang Dynasty Buddhism and Taoism with the local cults combined a Buddhist and local cults of the interaction between the two Taoist and local cults in the late Tang and Five Dynasties of three temples shrine of summary fourth chapter from the rain at the Sui and Tang Dynasties state sacrifice and social first festival ritual law central rain activity the big Yu as the center of the rain etiquette two religious and three Changan city rain rain space second The theory and practice of day County rain a ritual sacrifice principle third provisions of drought and local shrine two religious festival rain reflects a pray for newspaper and its social function principles and practical spirit of two rain social function summary conclusion appendix a "Tang Huayuezhen" 君碑 in Appendix two two "Tang" chronicles the chronological table with rain postscript postscript @##@ published reference index A knowledge to the development of a fine tradition, to keep the existing, on the other hand, will continue to be updated, develop new materials, find new problems, new ideas, to create new theory. At present the development of China history, is in such a development and transformation stage, both to maintain excellent book, traditional, but also explore the innovative theory. In the traditional accumulation of more rich in history, the results to date, the project is still the mainstream, and the new exploration still need to redouble our efforts. Fortunately, there are a number of young scholars, to inherit the fine traditions from their predecessors, and make good use of the new tools and means, vigorously absorption theory and method in the humanities and Social Sciences, began to produce some new fruits. This one, this monograph Levin, is the leader in the Sui and Tang Dynasties History book. National sacrifices to heaven and earth, reflects the concept of ghosts of an era, also reflects the different location of the imperial power in different periods of the day, people, is an important part of the belief system in each period. Sui and Tang state sacrifice this topic has many scholars have discussed and studied from different aspects, but the main achievement is still concentrated in the emperor's rural temple worship activities, this book in the Sui and Tang Dynasties State worship and religion and society this topic has carried on the new exploration.
Now has a group of young scholars, to inherit the fine traditions from their predecessors, and make good use of new tools and methods, theories and methods in the humanities and Social Sciences, gradually some new achievements. This book is the best I have ever read in Sui and Tang Dynasties History book. Author in the course of this study, there is always a strong theoretical thinking. He is from the State Sacrificial shrines in color, local cults of stratification and operation, the national and local rain activities and other aspects, in-depth study of the operation process of the Sui and Tang Dynasties of national and local social processing state worship and folk belief activities, the historical picture, than we see on the national ceremony alone and separate study Buddha, Dao and folk religious works to rich and colorful, and thus more close to the historical original appearance. -- Rong Xinjiang book is through State worship and religious belief, folk customs, multi-level research covers the history, the history of the system of etiquette, religious history, social history. The authors discuss the state sacrificial activities, covering the central and local governments; pay attention to ritual text at the same time, also stressed the importance of space scene and national sacrifices practice. The book broke the previous scholars view the sacrifice and the national civil society is separated from the people, has nothing to do with their religious beliefs, generally establishes a national ceremony and public life influence each other and have new thinking interaction. The data is searched Expo, not only depict a fresh, activities of the historical scene, also constructs a relatively clear, complete ideas and relatively rigorous theoretical framework, realizing the organic combination of theory and empirical. -- Wu Li entertainment
"Rural temple outside the Sui and Tang Dynasties State worship and Religion:" points out, "the Tang Dynasty, not only the religious ritual activities, has become the national affairs, even various kinds of religious activities, including local government held rain, also is a kind of public behavior." This is a close relationship between the Tang Dynasty and the change of the political system. The state is no longer the emperor's private property, the emperor was only the highest government leaders.
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