The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life, relevant research works on the range has been quite different, we after many discussions, on the basis of draw on the previous research, try to make a breakthrough. With its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, Song Liao Jin Xia, yuan and Ming, Qing, the twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs, as for each volume chapter setup. The spirit of "seeking friends, preserving differences" principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era.
The first chapter preface introduction dietary customs first festival diet staple two vegetables three eggs four fisheries and seafood five flavoring materials six fruit seven drinks second kitchen facilities and kitchen kitchen kitchen facilities in two events with three kitchen activities section third food staple production two seasoning made three dishes four fruit production fourth day diet utensils containing class two class three drinking utensils eating utensils category tableware four food case fifth day diet custom and fashion from all sectors of society in two and three diet diet taboo third chapter trappings customs first clothing materials and types of clothing materials two clothing three crown shoe four miscellaneous apparel section second a female body adornment ornament with two men of third section of society the class clothing a aromatic clothing two three four official uniforms of other strata garment section fourth regional and era changes the third chapter and fourth chapter of residential building custom custom of traffic and travel the fifth chapter sixth marriage customs Chapter seventh chapter health custom funeral custom agricultural production custom eighth chapter ninth chapter belief customs tenth chapter eleventh chapter entertainment festival customs customs chapter twelfth communicative customs and social fashion
Digest on the Qin and Han Dynasties of euphemism doesn't know much. Stay contained literature is the most death euphemism. The mountain in Qin and Han Dynasties reflect strongly to death to avoid heart buried. This kind of language folk there are the more common "die". On the "die", "Shi Ming. Release manufacturing" cloud: "since the Chinese that die for 'die', says the things will rot the." Gao Tanglong's explanation is: "no matter, also; therefore, it. Say no to the dead." The two are different, but in the release of "die" for the dead is similar. The Han Dynasty unearthed tomb brick Ming criminals this provides evidence: such as "no Henan Luo Yang Kun Tong Zhao Juyuan six years a leap month four, die die"; and "□ □ no Ren Dong county city Dan □ □ double end Hou Yin light four years die here.". A similar argument and "Qi", "pleaded guilty". "Shuowen" "1*" cloud: "2*, abandon,...... Saying that death is 2*." "Book of the later Han Huan Rong biography" "if not, worry free family also." Li Xianzhu: "he is dead. The people often said, he also." In the Qin and Han Dynasties class in society, the death euphemism also gives the corresponding arrangement. The emperor often referred to "collapse of death". Although the "release, release" collapse "of manufacturing system is defined when the bad shape" accurate, but the upper classes of society but are extended out another explanation: "the emperor called collapse? Don't rank, different life and death", "collapse of words, however, Fu Jiang, Fu missed the world God, Li Shuyun T, Miuchi Ryo." ① called "Deng Ya", "Deng Ya", travel is also. The upper classes of society "thought is concerned." this kind of mentality and also showed in a series of other death related terms. Such as "Shi day not Paul, no longer food Paul" the, "not the end of your salary." the doctor "; day died, Jingyao eventually died as words finally country"; "the day to die, the UN Yang"; while the common people are only "died". Qin and Han language reflects the culture of social class. From the perspective of language speech form, the modest words "Chen", "servant", "Concubine" is pre Qin period of lower social group title, they still refer to slavery or prisoners in the Qin and Han Dynasties; and the honorific language of "public", "sub", "Jun", "Qing" is the pre Qin era officials even monarch refer to words. This means that the Han people's self deprecating speech is to reduce their social status in language, and the corresponding respect language is to improve each other's identity in language localization. Types of female modesty language of slightly less than men, while the women's title words are far inferior to men. This seems to be the result of two factors: first, the status of women less than men. Qin and Han Dynasties, the status of women is not like the song and Yuan Dynasties is so low, but think that women are inferior to men is still the mainstream of the times. Can be regarded as the female consciousness of literature "Nvjie" constraints we pointed out: "women's words, do not have to 辩口利辞 also....... Choose the words and say, words not road. Then say, never tired of people, is that women's words." "Choose words and said" that is on the female language restrictions. Secondly, density of communication society women less than men. Han women mainly engaged in various household chores and activities, therefore, some of the occupation of the honorific will not appear in them. More importantly, social communication with low density, in essence, rich the language is exclusive, so that the Han Dynasty female cannot have more respect. Qin and Han language is this era social portraiture. The Han language has two prominent signs. First, the honorific occurs widely and widely used, wherein, both of the older men, but also the elderly women; moreover, the honorific is 6, throughout the country. This not only confirms the large amount of material, about the endowment the customs documents and cultural relics and, also shows that the more than is the official advocates, it has been deeply infiltrated people. Therefore, the Han Chinese on old ideas and influence on the Han society,Worthy of further study. Second, "Wu Yang", "strong rice", "good friends", "meal" message, is the pursuit of diet as a symbol of the material comforts, and direct portrayal of fear, the desire to live longer and psychological disease. Late in the Ming Dynasty, and continued to shape modern Chinese common meeting etiquette language "eaten" II, which originated from this kind of wish may. Digest 1 ordinary people about the Han Dynasty kitchen building structure and area, there were no clear and definite records. From the unearthed cultural relics, the kitchen roof for hanging mountain type building. Such as Pixian, Sichuan Henan unearthed from Shanxian Han stone on top of the kitchen, and kitchen model unearthed in Zhengzhou is so. From the Western Han Dynasty Zhengzhou yuan Bei Jie middle tomb unearthed pottery compound unearthed model and the Zhengzhou south gate the late Western Han Dynasty tomb pottery house, the kitchen area, close to the living room, but also high. The former and the residential kitchen needs to be placed a variety of cooking utensils and storage of goods, while the latter is clearly out of consideration (kitchen ventilation model of Zhengzhou yuan Bei Jie unearthed there are five windows, this is another proof of the kitchen attention ventilation). The houses in every area of about 10 to 15 square metres, such as the proportional model Qianyuan Bei Jie, kitchen like close or Lve Xiaoyu this area. Different classes have different kitchen scale. The existing data show that, aristocratic kitchen area greatly exceeded the ordinary people at home in the kitchen. Xuzhou North Mountain Lion King Tomb of Han Dynasty in Shanxi and were imitated palace construction, basically in accordance with the original construction area on the ground, provides important materials for understanding the Han Dynasty aristocrat life. The North Mountain kitchen consists of three components, one is the kitchen, an area of 6.9 square meters; the second is a well side room, an area of 25.3 square meters; the third is the woodshed, explore the area did not indicate. The three phase, the kitchen area of at least 32 square meters. The lion mountain kitchen also comprises three rooms, the area are respectively 44, 18 and 18 square meters, amounting to rib between square. In the internal structure of the kitchen, kitchen door is often designed larger, square in front of the Zhengzhou wall such as kitchen model Guan 159 tomb in the open door, maximum system all the buildings. This design should is motivated by the need to get food. The difference between the Han class kitchen buildings and equipment situation is obviously. Nobles, officials, merchants have political privileges and strong economic strength, degree of luxury the kitchen building much more than ordinary people. Housing is one of the goals of life social upper chase. The mid western Han Dynasty, Yang Yun & Home Furnishing "play house chamber, with money for". Eastern Han Dynasty eunuch Xu Huang, because they help emperor Huan Liang Ji active, on the same day Feng Hou, "all the king mansion, in the magnificent, great ingenuity". The kitchen when the corresponding refined modeling. Tableware of ordinary people in the family kitchen stove and pot, steamer only must have. While living in extreme poverty people living without even the location of the kitchen. Changan Han Dynasty scholar Hu tired grass curtain, the "Shi kitchen, bed, and the". Their cooking activities can only be carried out in the open or lodging. The Han Dynasty widely distributed all over the restaurant, hotel. City have many people engaged in food production. "Deli Times column, San Shi City" situation has been very popular in the mid western Han Dynasty social economic prosperity. Xin Yannian "Yu Lin Lang" a poem Description: to producing restaurant Hu female tone "I beg of sake, wire rope Yuhu; I beg Zhenyao, gold 'carp." A remarkable degree of restaurant food. In the famine years, Changan city also has a "sell Liang Shi broth" restaurant. The country also has a restaurant and pub. "Han Gotti Ji", Peixian Feng Yi is Wang and Wu Jia two seat tavern. A vendor cake home village road, selling cakes and pounded garlic. Nobles, merchants or other rich was a frequent visitor to the restaurant hotel. "Continued Han records of the five elements of a" load of the palaces in the Xiyuan masqueraded as a businessman, let the lady dressed as a restaurant owner, "to give up, female and common diet under, because that play music". Accommodation for the past officials want mechanism (see Chapter fourth) also have kitchen. Restaurant and hotel kitchens size should be larger than the general family kitchen, facilities will be more perfect. Two, kitchen facilities and appliances and kitchen facilities, wells and focal position is the most important. Living well is closely related with the kitchen. At that time the popular "water overflow, arc stove smoke" nursery rhyme. Archaeological data show that most of the Han Dynasty, there are wells near the kitchen. Shandong Pingyi and Weishan unearthed Han stone reliefs, left the kitchen stove as symbol is a well. The well arranged near the kitchen, apparently in order to facilitate washing food. Kitchen is the most basic kitchen interior equipment. "Release, release Palace" said: "focus, build, create the food." Kitchen and kitchen model in the portrait brick around the excavated in a range in a prominent position. Xi'an pottery unearthed inscribed with "straight two hundred", this is probably a common price that folk range. Range in all parts of the form are different. Guanzhong area during the Western Han Dynasty stove for the planar horseshoe shaped, to the Eastern Han Dynasty gradually evolved into the square, have two burner stove; the Central Plains region is a rectangle, the Western Han Dynasty, most of them only a burner burner, the Eastern Han Dynasty to two or three; and between central and the Central Plains area now Henan Shanxian unearthed pottery 灶则 both the horseshoe and square type two, from which we can see that the conditions of AC cooking at that time. Smoke baffle wall facilities in northern range is more complex; the range is popular Wu Chu area, and have four stove doors and burner "stove". The model not only pay attention to practical, also gradually pay attention to aesthetics in the external. The early Western Han Dynasty, the appearance is often more rustic kitchen. After the Han Dynasty, people in the kitchen decoration of a variety of patterns and forms, both practical and aesthetic. Cooking fuel mainly paid, reed, straw, carbon. Among them, the most widely used pay: salary that wood, when Emperor minister he used "plot pay catch up from behind the language of" criticism by re light the old emperor. Because firewood cooking is essential items, so it was the Han people attention. "The provisions of the four people monthly", "continuous heavy rain will fall" in May, should reserve paid, carbon fuel, "for the road in Nao". Was designed to sell firewood for a living. "Han Zhu Maichen" Zhu Maichen down "mowing the firewood firewood to sell, to give the food". Urban residents living consumption due to concentrated, fuelwood is much superThe same space area of the country. "Historical records Huo Zhi biography" contained "metropolis" a year to pay Gao thousand cars for sale "". At that time, whether using coal as fuel is life issues in need of further. About the coal cooking has the following materials: "taipingyulan" volume six 0 five lead Lu Yun and his brother's book called Han Cao Cao had possession of the "hundreds of thousands of pounds of graphite" as fuel. "Han Jun Guo Zhi four" continued "Yuzhang county" Li Xian note cited "Yu" Shangcai county "remember that a Ge Xiang, have in two years, fuel to cook". Gongxian iron raw briquette out of the ditch and the Western Han Dynasty Zhengzhou guxing town iron smelting sites, mostly located in the residential neighborhood, may be used as fuel for life. Legend has it that this century thirty time Liaoning Fushun residential Han xuantu Prefecture sites in a pit fire side found scattered in the ash, "shows that Fushun coal by local residents for cooking and heating in the Han Dynasty have been used". However, because the evidence is indirect, and "pottery unearthed from the tomb of shape, like not suitable for coal stove". Therefore, even when cooking food with coal as the fuel situation, probably is not universal. From the existing historical data, ophiuroids is an important fire tools in Qin and Han dynasties. "Huainan Zi" astronomical "pointed out that the ophiuroids see, is burning and fire." Excavated from a plurality of Western Zhou Dynasty in the late of ophiuroids ophiuroids, confirmed a long history of use. However, according to "Zhouli · of Adam · Si Xuan's" argument, ophiuroids is used when the fire of sacrifice. If the "Zhouli" have said is right, then to the Han Dynasty, ophiuroids from sacrificial temple in folk life. But because of ophiuroids process is complex, the majority of ophiuroids kindling principle is not very clear, so during the Qin and Han Dynasties in general was also used swords and other metal objects into the fire. In addition, the Han Dynasty is also widespread flint and situation. Using object friction ignition in the Han Dynasty is common sense knowledge. Such as "Huainan Zi" said: "the two original wooden mount yet". Han Yuefu Poems also have "stone see fire when". Flint said burnt stone. "The Juyan inscribed slips elucidates texts proofreading" Jane 214 · 4 cloud: "to buy six burnt stone is very", that is a kind of commodity. For a tool called the wood fire. Dunhuang in the Western Han Dynasty tomb unearthed in a rectangular piece of wood, cut to end the handle, both sides did not penetrate the drill 90 holes, one hole with traces of burning. Similar appliances 9 sites in the northwestern region of the unearthed a total of 11 parts. And ophiuroids, wooden flint and flint not affected by natural conditions, such as "book of rites in the" Shu Huang's pointed out: "in Jin Sui Qing fire in the day, overcast with wooden flint fire drill." The archaeological discovery of the wood boring and flint fire situation in the northwest region, and the frontier alarm about the need to be. The description can be seen from the literature in the Qin and Han Dynasties, ordinary people can usually keep kindling with plant ashes, and hemp or straw ligation up fire. At the beginning of the Chinese Kuai Tong fable had told a "束缊请火" in the neighborhood. In a word, in daily life, the use of fire for the Han people, is not a be an easy job to do....... Illustrations
Order after several years of hard work, wisdom and achievements of many experts and scholars, this "China customs" finally completed the compilation of general history. On this occasion, we as book organizers and participants, deeply gratified. Custom has the status and role play a decisive role in China's long history, rulers and the Confucian scholar officials tend to be referred to the height of the country. Such as when the Western Han Dynasty Jia Shan, pointed out in "Zhi Yan" s: "popular, ages of the." ("Han Shu, Jia Shan Chuan Ying Shao") in "custom meaning" the preface said: "for politics should, verify the custom, which is the." Because of this, they advocate change existing habits and customs, emphasizes education and demonstration role. "Xunzi said:" music theory "change existing habits and customs, the peace of the universe, beauty and goodness." "Yuan said, political theory" said: "the sage uprising also, can change existing habits and customs, and can be applied to teach people." "Filial piety" said: "change existing habits and customs, is not good at music." Therefore, research China custom history, summarize the experience and lessons Chinese evolution law of custom, not only help people understand China historical culture, promote the construction of China history, folklore, but also for promoting the civilization construction of the current two, has ten important. About the meaning of the ancient customs, has explained, such as the Eastern Han Dynasty Ban Gu "Han" volume eight "geography" cloud: "where a public letter Wuchang nature, while the rigid flexible priority, voice is different, the soil atmosphere, so that the wind; likes and dislikes of choice, dynamic and static death often, as the monarch of the passions, so that the customs." "New, custom article" also said: "the wind gas also, vulgar habits also. Land springs of water, gas or other, sound, that the wind behavior; habitat here, learning is by nature, that's vulgar." From the discussion of ancient can be clearly seen, "wind" is formed due to soil, climate, natural conditions such as different products and fashion, and "vulgar" is used by social behavior social living conditions and the formation of different. The two together, is the custom, namely: custom is a regional and national long-term form of social customs and habits of the people collectively. It is also a cultural phenomenon existing in the human society is very unique, like a mirror, vividly and concretely reflects a country, a nation, an area of each historical period social style, with regional, national, inheritance, social and spontaneous character. The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life. Relevant research works on range has always been quite entry. We have been discussed many times, on the basis of previous results carefully, try to make a breakthrough. According to its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. From the creative to all of the manuscript be published, which lasted for several years. During this period, although we repeatedly on issues related to the compilation of the academic discussions, but because the author more time to prepare, and relatively short, so the entire frame running in and connection of the volume and some other specific points still exist in some places not just as one wishes, please advice and the reader criticism. The bookClassified by age, consists of primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, song, Jin, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Western Xia, in twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs. As for the volume of the chapter setup, the spirit of "seeking common ground while reserving differences," principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era. Book compiling and publishing, has been the strong support and help Shanghai literature and Art Publishing House and the leadership of the comrades here, express our thanks. Also, the preparation of the book in addition to our long-term accumulation of data and research results, but also reference the research results of many scholars, especially in this together to provide a reference to all the book learning to extend my heartfelt thanks! Chen Gaohua Xu Jijun 2001.6
Do you know the Qin and Han customs? Do you understand the forming background and characteristics of the Qin and Han Dynasties customs? Please read the "general history of the Qin and Han Dynasties Chinese Customs: Volume", "general history of the Qin and Han Dynasties China Customs: Volume" details of Qin and Han customs aspects, in the book you will understand that the diet custom, the Qin and Han Dynasties funeral custom, communicative customs etc.. What are you waiting for? Please read it!
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