Digest a rustle, instrument and rain shooting willow "Liao history · Mandarin solution" said: "the rain rustle Li, Liu 之仪 shot away Nian Khan, Soviet system." The birthplace of the upper reaches of the Liaohe dry climate, so the rain in the people daily life has become the factors concerned. From the remote Nian Sukhan (Jordan in the middle period of Tang Dynasty), formed to rain rustling. After the establishment of Liao Dynasty, this custom follows does not change. Emperor Taizu emperor, "the line was Li, Liu big shot". Day was three years (928 years) in June Ji Mao, Taizong "howling ceremony" ii. Four year in May, "Wu Zi, Taizong shooting willow in Dynasty palace. Gui Si, for "the howling ceremony. Apple two years (1056), Taoism for the howling ceremony. Their ritual ceremony, according to "Liao history" Book Nine "a" Li Zhi "howling instrument" set: such as the case of drought, choose auspicious, for rustling instrument by the rain. The first set the column ceiling, and to choose the date, dear, they kill the jade successively shot. "Liu quality Zhi Liu crown clothing, not to the crown service quality". Winner winner not to wine, then the crown clothing. Second days, in the ceiling of southeastern Liu, Wu to sweet wine, millet millet offering planting willow. Children shot willow. The Emperor gave the royal princes, Guojiu, gift. Howling ceremony within three days after the rain, then give "Ma is the enemy" (Herald) Ma Sipi, clothing four. If not the rain water, "in the fertile". Digest 1 two, official: after serving the country and the establishment of Hanfu, accompanied by the territory development, increasing contact with Han Chinese, agriculture, handicraft industry and discuss field trade development, wool and linen textiles and silk like Luo Qi gradually more up. Influenced by the culture of the Central Plains, the dress features are also expanding, it has been limited to the warm my body, but a "don't sign on, Ming Wei". Liao Taizong, formal dress for. "Liao history" volume five or six "instrument Wei Chi" set: "king of Chinese, purple rats, Luo Qizhi bar, load and moose. Fine beautiful Huan down, is soil silk wood. They decided to dress for class, north of, South banharn system, each according to its will." (a) the national dress robes, vestments, there, right, uniforms, clothes, hanging clothes such as hunting. The 1 emperor, therefore, use the clothes worn in the thesis, the ceremony. These ceremonies, including Ji instrument, instrument, meter, fierce military funeral, Jia instrument etc.. In the ceremony, was divided into several. Ji instrument offering mountain instrument as a gift, especially "dress". Because of the different cult scale, the dress has the distinction. Large worship. The emperor take bronze crown, white silk gowns, red tape, hanging fish, a rhinoceros jade knife. Small worship. The emperor wear hard hats, red wire tortoise robe. Queen red handkerchief, or crimson 帓 (Crimson scarf), wear red, hanging pendant, black boots. Therefore, women's clothing, from the color of the flag. The white robes. The Ti implicit (formal name, in charge of the Royal Affairs) Dai Sujin. 2 emperor the Dagon, red crown court dress, act the role ofing rhinoceros Yudai wrong, with boots, called the national service Dagon crown. Civil and military officials wear felt crown or yarn crown, when according to the season and. Mat with golden ornaments, or what the jade hair. Yarn crown as official, no eaves. Suit narrow gown. Line shaft with a leather tanning,, and with gold, jade, crystal, indigo stone decorated, called "pan purple". 3 this emperor wearing purple soap pieces of towel, dressed in a purple robe or narrow red jacket. Court officials also a towel, purple. 4 often take "Liao history" volume five or six "for health records two" "Prime Minister Xie instrument" emperor called "suit", but did notLoad the mourning apparel system. The queen dressed in uniforms, according to Wang Ding, "burning pepper recorded" load, Taoism 宣懿 actors to play Zhao Weiyi queen and "Heart Institute", the "Purple hundred Feng sweater, apricot golden thread skirt, wearing Babolat flower bun, wearing a red flower Phoenix boots", should be the Queen's suit. Civil and military officials often service called "round", namely the undercover. Green flower narrow gown, single (underwear) red green. Zhao Weiyi and Xuan Yi queen bomb "back to the heart institute", "official", to "green towel wiping the amount of gold, narrow sleeves purple shirt, belt, black leather boots". It is therefore often wear. 5 hunting clothes the emperor headdress (with cloth bundle of hair), "to put on a military uniform," goose, duck head to marten or to skewer the waist. Some Chinese officials dress uniform, vests are left lapel, black green. 6 hanging clothes when the emperor as white clothing, white. Civil and military officials put soap (black) robe. (two) is from the Central Plains Dynasty Han Han costume. Datong first year (947 years) lunar January, Liao Taizong Yelv Deguang people Bian (Kaifeng), the Jin emperor temple in waste, 崇元 by officials Asaka, and then north to, "Tang, Jin relics, Liao is used". Since then, the Central Plains and a costume system to the Liao Dynasty, the beginning of Hanfu system. In addition to the Han officials of Chinese clothes, Khitan emperor, Prince, therefore, in some cases also wear clothes. Hanfu divided vestments, robes, public service, service etc.. 1 in the ancestral temple worship, vestments Khitan emperor sent to and "Yuanri at the instrument", wear Hanfu vestments. The emperor vestments, which is composed of his crown, crown, Xuan Yi, felling and etc.. The emperor's crown with twelve tassels, each streamer consists of twelve beads through. According to the regulations, Xuan Yi, bond and the twelve chapter (twelve patterns), the top eight chapter, for the day, month, stars, dragon, Hua Chong, fire, mountain, Zong Yi; bottom four chapters, for algae, rice powder, embroidery, embroidery. Accessories have leather belt, belt, ribbon and a sword. Shoes (shoes) and gold. The 2 robes except South official robes to wear Hanfu, Khitan emperor, Prince, Prince, sometimes also wear clothes robes. The emperor robes, by the crown, the crimson gauze gown, white dress jacket, 韈 shoes (socks shoes). The crown prince the crimson gauze gown, white sheets, white dress jacket, a knee cap, white 韈, black shoes. In addition, the prince and officials at all levels have different robes. This right includes 3 emperor, wing good crown, zhe yellow robe, white silk dress jacket, Liuhe boots. The crown prince to the crimson gauze this suit, white dress jacket, white 韈, black leather shoes. 4 service called "in the Liao dynasty". The emperor often wear folded headscarves, zhe yellow shirts, Liuhe boots. Fold on the scarf, folded towel scarf, i.e.. Shen Kuo "Meng Xi Bi Tan" volume one: head of Fu, "the two belt hanging behind, (folded) [two] with anti department head, the twists and turns of the top, therefore also called fold napkins". The prince often wear, for the crown, the crimson gauze dress, white dress jacket, white 韈, black leather shoes. Officials at all levels, respectively, wearing a scarf, wearing different colored robes. Civil service with a towel, knives, stone, fish bag etc.. With a knife stone, military attache, syringe, Flint bag etc.. Under the dark leather Liuhe boots. Three, from the archaeological discovery of Liao Dynasty costumes from the above according to records had been described, we still don't have clear understanding on the Liao Dynasty costumes, while a large number of archaeological finds, can not only prove the literature records, but also make us have a image recognition on the Liao Dynasty dress. (a) shows that material of archaeological materials, the Khitan noble men and women clothing fabrics have been quite elegant, the craft reached a fairly high level. 1974 in Liaoning Faku yemaotai Liao Dynasty tomb unearthed silk fabrics precious objects. Including silk, yarn, Luo, Qi, Jin, loop pile fabric and a seven more varieties and specifications. Spinning process and some plain weave textiles have a characteristic, is formed between the silk and silk thread of the parallel aligned, the fabric is thin and soft. Found in Inner Mongolia in jiefangyingzi Liao Tomb of a batch of brocade, damask, Romania, embroidery, "Jiaxie" and "wax valerian" method of dyeing a variety of patterns. Jiaxie began in the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Tang will get popular. The first is to use two pieces of wood carved into the same pattern, coloring clamp dyeing, so jiaxie. "Wax valerian" is made of wax painted pattern, dyed removed, leaving the pattern on the fabric. The above findings, reflected the silk process has reached a high level....... Illustrations
The first chapter of the order volume the diet custom section second day food wine, tea and other drinks third day feast cooking utensils and section fourth of the diet for fifth day the diet custom features second chapter first day wearing custom clothing system and custom second day jewelry system and custom third Liao clothes customs characteristics and evolution of third chapter 1 living and building custom yurt and board building tools in section second and section third of Beijing Building Nabo, fourth room equipment and furniture section fifth the residential and building custom features and historical status of the fourth chapter travel custom section road section second section third road and waterway Posthouse fifth chapter first marriage marriage customs system and form of the second day the marriage customs of the third day marriage policy and the concept of marriage sixth chapter of birth and name custom section birth customs second customs of funeral custom name seventh chapter first section and second section burial tomb embalming and network mask in section third The emperor funeral with the section fourth., "cooking" and other fifth sections of the funeral custom features, evolution and cultural connotation of the eighth chapter production customs section second section third section of agriculture animal husbandry and fishing ninth chapter belief customs first primitive belief in section second section third section fourth Taoist Buddhist shamanism...... In the volume of the book series of the @##@ volumes postscript The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life, relevant research works on the range has been quite different, we after many discussions, on the basis of draw on the previous research, try to make a breakthrough. With its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, Song Liao Jin Xia, yuan and Ming, Qing, the twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs, as for each volume chapter setup. The spirit of "seeking friends, preserving differences" principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era.
Order after several years of hard work, wisdom and achievements of many experts and scholars, this "China customs" finally completed the compilation of general history. On this occasion, we as book organizers and participants, deeply gratified. Custom has the status and role play a decisive role in China's long history, rulers and the Confucian scholar officials tend to be referred to the height of the country. Such as when the Western Han Dynasty Jia Shan, pointed out in "Zhi Yan" s: "popular, ages of the. "(" Han Jia Shan Chuan Ying Shao ") in" custom meaning "the preface said:" for politics should, verify the custom. Most of its on. "Because of this, they advocate change existing habits and customs, emphasizes education and demonstration role. "Xunzi music theory": "change existing habits and customs, the peace of the universe, beauty and goodness. "Yuan said," political theory ":" the sage uprising also, can change existing habits and customs, and can be applied to teach people. "" book of filial piety ":" change existing habits and customs, is not good at music. "Therefore, research Chinese custom history, summarize the experience and lessons Chinese evolution law of custom, not only help people understand China historical culture, promote the construction of China history, folklore, but also for promoting the civilization construction of the current two, undoubtedly has a very important significance. About the meaning of the ancient customs, has explained, such as the Eastern Han Dynasty Ban Gu "Han" volume eight "geography" cloud: "where a public letter Wuchang nature, while the rigid flexible priority, voice is different, the soil atmosphere, so that the wind; likes and dislikes of choice, dynamic and static death often, as the monarch of the passions, so that the customs. "New", "Customs article is:" the wind gas also, vulgar habits also. Land springs of water, gas or other, sound, that the wind behavior; habitat here, learning is by nature, that's vulgar. "From these ancient paper can be clearly seen," wind "is formed due to soil, climate, natural conditions such as different products and fashion, and" vulgar "is used by social behavior social living conditions and the formation of different. The two together, is the custom, namely: the customs is aRegional and national long-term form of social customs and habits of the people collectively. It is also a cultural phenomenon existing in the human society is very unique, like a mirror, vividly and concretely reflects a country, a nation, an area of each historical period social style, with regional, national, inheritance, social and spontaneous character. The custom content is very extensive, involving many aspects of material life and spiritual life. Relevant research works on range has always been quite entry. We have been discussed many times, on the basis of previous results carefully, try to make a breakthrough. According to its content and form, which is divided into food, clothing, housing, transportation, marriage, funeral, birthday, health care, communication, economic production, entertainment, religious belief and other items, and efforts to explore the basic characteristics and evolution of all ages custom. From the creative to all of the manuscript be published, which lasted for several years. During this period, although we repeatedly on issues related to the compilation of the academic discussions, but because the author more time to prepare, and relatively short. The entire frame running in and connection of the volume and some other specific issues can still exist some not just as one wishes place, please advice and criticisms. This book by the time division, is divided into the primitive society, the Xia and Shang, two week, Qin Han, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, song, Jin, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Western Xia, in twelve volumes, tries to comprehensively and systematically reflect the history of the development of China customs. As for the volume of the chapter, the spirit of "seeking common ground while reserving differences," principle, strive to reflect the customs and characteristics of each era. Book compiling and publishing, has been the strong support and help Shanghai literature and Art Publishing House and the leadership of the comrades here, express our thanks. Also, the preparation of the book in addition to our long-term accumulation of data and research results, but also reference the research results of many scholars, especially in this together to provide a reference to all the book learning to extend my heartfelt thanks! Chen Gaohua Xu Jijun 2001.6
You want to know our country northwest national minority national culture? You want to know the Galerkin Xixia customs? Please read the book, the book details the Galerkin Xixia customs aspects, in the book, you will feel the unique charm of the Khitan, Jurchen, Xixia etiquette hunting journey, please read the book of the growth of knowledge, to enhance the taste!
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